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Table 2 Application of different types of nanoparticles

From: A review on herbal drug loaded into pharmaceutical carrier techniques and its evaluation process

Nanoparticles types Application
Fullerenes  
Eg: berberine-loaded fullerene (C60) for cancer (a molecule composed entirely of carbon [79])
 1. Fullerene (C60) Liver toxicity and diminished lipid peroxidation
 2. Metallofullerol [31] Leukemia and bone cancer
 3. Cationic, anionic, and amino acid-type fullerene HIV-reverse transcriptase and hepatitis C
Solid lipid nanoparticles( SLN)  
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Eg: curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (mainly comprise lipids that are in solid phase)
 1. Glycerol palmitostearate and cetyl palmitate [80] Fungi and type 1 diabetes
 2. Hyaluronic acid-coupled chitosan SLN Colorectal cancer
 3. Steric acid, soya Gram-positive bacteria
Nanostructured lipid carriers  
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Eg: quercetin-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (nanostructured lipid carriers are produced from a blend of solid and liquid lipid) [81]
 1. Stearylamine and diacetyl phosphate Human immunodeficiency
 2. DC-chol liposome Gene transfer in subcutaneous tumor
 3. Hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and di-stearoyl phosphatidylglycerol Gram-negative bacteria
 4. Phosphatidylcholine, dynasan, and flurbiprofen Sustained release of anti-inflammatory drug
 5. Fluticasone propionate, glyceryl palmitostearate and PEG Topical cortico-therapy
Nanoshells  
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Eg: Artemisinin nanoshells, Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza nanoshell
(Spherical core, surrounded by a shell or outer coating of a thin layer of another materials)
 1. Silica coating of silver colloids Stability of colloids
 2. Gold nanoshell particles Imaging of disease
 3. Silver nanoshells, silica–silver core-shell particles To detect antibodies and microorganism [82]
 4. Nanoshell To detect cancer cell and tumors
Quantum dots  
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(Semiconductor nanocrystals and core shell nanocrystals containing interface between different semiconductor materials)
 1. Quantum dots [83] For measuring protein conformational changes, protein interaction, use in immune assay
 2. PEG-encapsulated QDs In vivo animal imaging, lymph node mapping
 3. QDs encapsulated in phospholipid micelles Cell tracking and color imaging of liver cells
Superparamagnetic nanoparticles  
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Eg: Hyaluronic acid-loaded superparamagnetic nanoparticles [84] (molecules are those attracted to a magnetic field)
 1. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles Magnetic particle imaging
 2. Colloidal dispersion of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles Magnetic fluid hyperthermia
 3. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with polyvinyl benzyl Liver targeting MRI contrast agent
Dendrimers  
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Eg: lactoferrin-tagged quantum dots [85]
(unimolecular, monodisperse, micellar
nanostructures, around 20 nm in size) [86]
 1. Polyamidoamine dendrimers Various bacteria
 2. Polylysine dendrimer Glaucoma
 3. Pegylated lysine-based copolymeric dendrimer [87] Antifungal agent