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Table 3 Application of nanoparticles in various fields

From: A review on herbal drug loaded into pharmaceutical carrier techniques and its evaluation process

Nanoparticles Application
Drug delivery Nanoparticle enhanced delivery of the drug to uptake by target cells
Reduce the toxicity of free drug to non-target organs [89]
Food Improvement of food safety [90], enhancement of nutrition and flavor, longer shelf lives
Enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients [91]
Gene delivery Efficiently introduce a gene of interest to express its encoded protein in a suitable host or host cell [92]
Mainly employ viral vectors
Cancer treatment Maybe utilize to set in motion photosensitive therapeutic agent for application in cancer treatment [93, 94]
Cosmetics Sunscreen, lotions, etc.
Industrial engineering and chemical engineering Nanoscale materials have been involved in window glass, sunglasses, car bumpers, paints, coatings, sports gods, explosives, propellants [95], etc.
Catalysis Nanoparticles hold high exterior area that offers elevated catalytic activity [96]
Tissue engineering Repair of damaged tissues
Construction Nanosilica is mixed with the normal concrete to improve the mechanical property and also improve durability [62]
Renewable energy and environmental remediation Used to treat the surface water by disinfection, purification, and desalination [97,98,99]