Skip to main content

Table 1 Comparison of coronaviruses

From: COVID-19 pandemic crisis—a complete outline of SARS-CoV-2

Parameters SARS-COV2 SARS-COV MERS-COV
Epidemiology Dec 2019, Wuhan, China Nov 2002, Guangdong, China April 2012, Saudi Arabia
Animal reservoir Bats Bats Bats
Intermediate host Pangolins/minks (yet to be confirmed) Palm civets Camels
Receptor target ACE2 ACE2 DPP4
Fatality rate 2.3% 9.5% 34.4%
Genetic similarity with the other 79.5% SARS-CoV
50% MERS-CoV
79.5% SARS-CoV-2 50% SARS-CoV-2
Virus type SS-RNA RNA RNA
Total RNA sequence length of pathogen 29,903 bp 29,751 bp 30,108 bp
M:F ratio 2.70:1 1:1.25 2:1
Transmission route Droplets; faeco-oral transmission; contact with infected individual or things
Human-to-human
Droplets; contact with infected individual or things; bat-civets-human
Human-to-human
Touching infected camel or consumption of meat or milk
Limited human-to-human transmission
Clinical symptoms Fever, fatigue, dry cough Fever, cough, myalgia, dyspnea, diarrhea Fever, cough, respiratory distress, vomiting, diarrhea
Incubation 7–14 days, 24 days 2–7 days 5–6 days
R0 2.68 2.5 > 1
Diagnostic methods RRT-PCR, RT-PCR, RT-lamp, RRT-lamp, coronavirus detection kit RRT-PCR, RT-PCR, RT-lamp, RRT-lamp, coronavirus detection kit RRT-PCR, ELISA, micro neutralization assay, MERS-CoV serology test
Chest X-ray Bilateral multi-lobular ground glass opacities Ground glass opacities Ground glass opacities; consolidation
Chest CT scan No nodular opacities Lobar consolidation; nodular opacities Single or multiple opacities; bilateral glass opacities; sub-pleural and lower lobe predominance; septal thickness
Prevention Hand hygiene; cough etiquette; avoiding unnecessary touching of the eyes or face. Hand hygiene; cough etiquette; avoiding unnecessary touching of the eyes or face. Hand hygiene; cough etiquette; avoiding unnecessary touching of the eyes or face; avoiding raw milk and meat consumption.
Treatment Ritonavir; lopinavir (in testing) Glucocorticoids; interferon Ribavirin; interferon; analgesics (treatment not yet determined)
  1. Note: despite the lower case fatality rate observed in COVID-19, the overall number of death far outweighs that from SARS and MERS