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Table 1 Reported analytical method for the estimation of AT and co-administered drugs in biological fluids using the HPLC technique

From: A review on liquid chromatographic methods for the bioanalysis of atorvastatin

Analyte(s) Biological matrix Sample preparation Mode of elution; mobile phase Stationary phase Flow rate (mL min−1) Detection Rt (min) Calibration range LOD LOQ % Recovery Ref.
AT and curcumin Mouse plasma PP Isocratic elution; ACN:MeOH:2% (v/v) AcA (37.5:2.5:60, v/v/v) Purospher STAR RP18 endcapped column (55 × 4 mm, 3 μm) 1.0 DAD247 nm 9.4 600–50,000 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9992 66.70 ng mL−1 ---- 91.28% [12]
Lung homogenate supernatant 600–50,000ng mL−1r2 = 0.9992 85.70 ng mL−1 ---- 99.83%
Brain homogenate supernatant 100–50,000 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9978 0.80 ng mL−1 ---- 101.57%
Liver homogenate supernatant 100–15,000 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9979 25.00 ng mL−1 ---- 89.82%
Spleen homogenate supernatant 600–50,000 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9970 300.00 ng mL−1 ---- 89.08%
Rosuvastatin, gemfibrozil, and AT Human plasma MDμ-SPE-SSME Isocratic elution; ACN:sodium phosphate buffer (pH 3; 0.05 M) (59:41, v/v) C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1.0 UV230 nm ≈9.0 30–2000 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9930 10.00 ng mL−1 9.70 ng mL−1 98.75% [13]
Human Urine 25–2000 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9910 8.00 ng mL−1 8.70 ng mL−1 99.55%
AT and clopidogrel Human plasma PP Isocratic elution; KH2PO4 buffer (pH 2.5):ACN (50:50, v/v) C8 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1.3 PDA243 nm 10.3 10–50 μg mL−1r2 = 0.9974 ---- 10.40 μg mL−1 97.80% [14]
AT, clopidogrel and Aspirin Rat plasma PP Gradient elution; A = Dibasic phosphate buffer (pH 3.0;10 mM), B = ACN Beta-basic C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm). 1.0 UV232 nm 16.2 10–10,000 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9990 ---- 10.00 ng mL−1 92.85% [15]
AT Human plasma DLLME-SFO Isocratic elution; MeOH:water (70:30,v/v) (pHa3.0 with Sodium phosphate buffer) Shim-pack CLC-C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1.5 UV ≈1.7 0.2–6000 μg mL−1r2 = 0.9950 0.07 μg mL−1 ---- 98.80–113.80% [16]
AT and pioglitazone Rat plasma LLE Isocratic elution; MeOH:ACN:AF (pH 3.5; 1 mM) (48:19:33 v/v/v) Gemini C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1.0 DAD260 nm 11.3 6–300 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9967 3.00 ng mL−1 6.00 ng mL−1 74.03% [17]
AT Human serum SALLE Isocratic elution, AA buffer:ACN (50:50, v/v) (pHa3.0 with o-phosphoric acid) Symmetric C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1.0 UV246 nm ---- 1–10,000 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9980 0.50 ng mL−1 ---- 99.50% [18]
AT micro-emulsions Rat plasma PP Isocratic elution; MeOH:water (70:30, v/v) (0.05% glacial AcA) C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1.0 UV248 nm 5.6 100–50,000 ng mL−1r2 ≥ 0.9854 20.00 ng mL−1 50.00 ng mL−1 91.16% [19]
AT, rosuvastatin Rat plasma LLE Isocratic elution; MeOH:water (68:32, v/v) (pHa 3.0) BDS Hypersil C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1.0 UV241 nm 11.3 20–200 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9920 1.30 ng mL−1 10.30 ng mL−1 96.48% [20]
AT Human serum LLE Isocratic elution; 10% MeOH in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 3.5; 0.05 M with o-phosphoric acid): MeOH (43:57, v/v) Ascentis C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1.2 UV247 nm 19.8 3–150 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9990 1.20 ng mL−1 3.00 ng mL−1 85.10% [21]
Pioglitazone, gliquidone, and AT Human serum PP Isocratic elution; MeOH:water (90:10, v/v) (pHa3.50 with o-phosphoric acid) Purospher Star RP18 endcapped column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), 1.0 UV235 nm 3.6 5–50 μg mL−1r2 = 0.9989 0.60 μg mL−1 1.90 μg mL−1 98.80–104.3% [22]
AT, Losartan, atenolol, and aspirin Plasma PP Isocratic elution; ACN:KH2PO4 (pH 3.4; 0.02 M) (70:30, v/v) HiQ Sil C18HS column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1.0 UV236 nm 5.2 25–150 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9997 ---- 25.00 ng mL−1 99.46% [23]
AT and simvastatin Human plasma SPE, DLLME Isocratic elution; AA solution (pH 3.5; 0.02 M): ACN (25:75, v/v) Luna C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 0.7 DAD254 nm ---- 45–900 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9990 25.00 ng mL−1 75.00 ng mL−1 90.00%, 83.00% [24]
AT Human plasma PP Isocratic elution; MeOH:ACN:Sodium phosphate buffer (pH 4.5; 0.01 M) (40:30:30,v/v/v) Shim-Pak C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm). 1.0 UV247 nm ---- 5–160 ng mL−1 7.80 ng mL−1 22.90 ng mL−1 98.70% [25]
AT and fenofibrate Rabbit plasma PP Isocratic elution; KH2PO4:ACN (28:72, v/v) (pHa 4.1) Capcell Pak C8 DDS5 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 mm) 1.0 UV260 nm 4.2 1–40 μg mL−1r2 = 0.9993 0.05 μg mL−1 0.20 g mL−1 97.04% [26]
AT and rosuvastatin Human serum LLE Isocratic elution; MeOH:water (68:3,v/v) ( pHa 3.0) Brownlee analytical C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1.5 UV241 nm 6 3–384 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9990 1.00 ng mL−1 3.00 ng mL−1 98.20% [27]
Lisinopril, AT, pravastatin, and rosuvastatin Human Serum PP Isocratic elution; MeOH:water: ACN (80: 17.5:2.5, v/v/v) (pHa3.0) Purospher STAR C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1.0 UV225 nm 8.3 625–25,000 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9994 1.30 ng mL−1 4.10 ng mL−1 100.86% [28]
Fluvastatin, pravastatin, and AT Human plasma PP Isocratic elution; ACN:KH2PO4 (60:40, v/v) (pHa 3.5 by o-phosphoric acid) ZORBAX Extend-C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1 UV210 nm 2.4 5–40 μg mL−1r2 = 0.9990 2.5 μg mL−1 4.00 μg mL−1 99.80% [29]
AT and gemfibrozil Human plasma PP Isocratic elution; AA buffer (pH 5.0; 0.1 M):ACN (45:55, v/v) C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1.0 PDA240 nm 3.4 1–20 μg mL−1r2 = 0.9997 30.00 ng mL−1 0.10 μg mL−1 93.54% [30]
AT Human plasma LLLME Isocratic elution; ACN:0.1% AcA (70:30, v/v) ODS-3 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1.0 UV246 nm 2.7 1–500 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9960 0.40 ng mL−1 1.00 ng mL−1 22.90% [31]
AT Beagle dog plasma PP Isocratic elution; ACN:AA buffer (pH 4; 0.1 M) (65:35, v/v) Kromasil C8 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 mm) 1.0 UV270 nm 6.6 50–2500 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9995 8.00 ng mL−1 25.00 ng mL−1 91.30% [32]
AT Human plasma PP Isocratic elution; NaH2PO4 (0.01 M):ACN (60:40, v/v) (pHa5.5) Nucleosil-100 C8 column (125 × 4 mm, 5 μm) 1.5 UV245 nm 3.6 20–800 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9998 1.00 ng mL−1 ---- 100.20% [33]
AT Human serum LLE Isocratic elution; sodium phosphate buffer (pH 4; 0.05 M):MeOH (33:67, v/v) Shim-pack CLC- C18 column (100 × 4 mm, 5 μm) 2.5 UV247 nm 3.4 4–256 ng mL−1r2 ≥ 0.9965 1.00 ng mL−1 4.00 ng mL−1 95.00 ± 4.00% [34]
Metformin, amlodipine, glibenclamide, and AT Human plasma PP Gradient elution; A = 0.1% o-phosphoric acid (pH 3.0), B = ACN Novapack Phenyl column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) ---- UV 227 nm 11.8 100–5000 ng mL−1 ---- 1.00 ng mL−1 91.19% [35]
AT HumanPlasma PP Isocratic elution; ACN:MeOH: water (45:45:10, v/v/v) RP C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 mm) 1.0 UV240 nm 1.9 500–86,000 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9980 8.40 ng mL−1 17.90 ng mL−1 98.90% [36]
AT Human plasma MSPE Isocratic elution; ACN:o-phosphoric acid (pH 6;10 mM) (75:25, v/v) C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1.0 Fluorimetric282 nm, 400 nm 4.4 30–120 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9996 10.00 ng mL−1 30.00 ng mL−1 101.35% [37]
AT and valsartan Human serum Solid based DLLE Isocratic elution; sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.0; 0.02 M):ACN: MeOH (60:20:20, v/v/v) Spherisorb C18 column (25 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 0.7 DAD210 nm 8.0 10–5000 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9970 2.60 ng mL−1 8.20 ng mL−1 81.00% [38]
AT Rat plasma PP Isocratic elution; ACN:water (pH 3.3):MeOH (50:40:10, v/v/v) Knalier Vertex Plus C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 0.9 UV240 nm 9.1 10–12,000 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9998 0.70 ng mL−1 2.20 ng mL−1 102.48% [39]
Intestinal perfusionsolution 10–12,000 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9988 1.00 ng mL−1 2.90 ng mL−1 102.02%
AT and amlodipine Rat plasma PP Isocratic elution; dibasic phosphate buffer(pH 3.0): ACN (55:45, v/v) Beta-basic C18 column (100 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1.0 UV240 nm 12.1 0.05–10 μg mL−1r2 = 0.9990 ---- 0.30 μg mL−1 92.80% [40]
Clopidogrel, metabolite, and AT Human plasma PP Gradient elution; A = sodium phosphate buffer (pH 2.6; 10 mM), B = ACN, C = MeOH BDS Hypersil C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1.0 PDA220 nm 10.9 5–2500 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9994 2.00 ng mL−1 5.00 ng mL−1 94.50% [41]
AT and ezetimibe Human plasma PP Isocratic elution, KH2PO4 (pH 3.5; 0.05 M adjusted with o-Phosphoric acid): ACN (40:60, v/v) X-Terra C8 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm) 1.2 PDA235 nm 3.5 5–25 μg mL−1r2 = 0.9940 ---- 1.30 μg mL−1 100.42% [42]
AT Human plasma Dμ- SPE Isocratic elution; MeOH:ACN:water (76:13:11, v/v/v) Knauer C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1.0 UV253 nm ---- 0.3–2000 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9996 0.06 ng mL−1 0.20 ng mL−1 101.80% [43]
AT Human plasma Ultrasound-assisted MSPE Isocratic elution; ammonium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 3.0): ACN (50:50, v/v) Teknokroma C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1.5 UV246 nm 5.0 0.4–500 ng mL−1r2 ≥ 0.9990 0.10 ng mL−1 ---- 94.58% [44]
AT and glimepiride Human serum LLE Isocratic elution; ACN: water (containing 1% v/v triethylamine) (55:45, v/v/v) (pHa 5.6 with o-phosphoric acid) Inertsil C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1.0 UV230 nm 6.9 1–1600 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9960 ---- 1.00 ng mL−1 94.83% [45]
AT and Lercanidipine Rat plasma PP Isocratic elution; ACN:AA buffer (pH 3.5; 0.1 M) (50:50, v/v) Wakosil II C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1.2 UV235 nm 10.2 0.05–40 μg mL−1r2 = 0.9990 ---- ---- 89.00-94.00% [46]
AT and valsartan Human serum MDμ- SPE Isocratic elution; MeOH:ACN: Sodium phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) (40:25:35, v/v/v) Licrosorb RP-18 column (100 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm) 1.0 UV240 nm ---- 10–2000 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9982 2.40 ng mL−1 8.00 ng mL−1 92.83% [47]
AT Rat plasma PP Isocratic elution; MeOH:water (70:30, v/v/v) (pHa 5.5) C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) ---- UV 4.9 50–1000 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9973 10.0 ng mL−1 15.0 ng mL−1 93.55% [48]
AT Human serum MD- SPE Isocratic elution; ACN:water (45:55, v/v) Licrosorb RP 18 column (100 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm). 1.0 DAD ---- 1–1000 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9973 0.10 ng mL−1 0.40 ng mL−1 96.03% [49]
Captopril, rosuvastatin, simvastatin, and AT Human serum PP Isocratic elution; ACN:water (60:40, v/v) (pHa 2.9 with phosphoric acid) Purospher STAR C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 mm) 1.5 UV230 nm ≈ 3.9 625–25,000 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9995 5.87 ng mL−1 17.80 ng mL−1 99.76% [50]
Rosuvastatin, gemfibrozil, and AT Human plasma TAALLME-SFO Isocratic elution; ACN:Sodium phosphate buffer (pH 3; 0.05 M) (61:39, v/v) ODS III column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 mm) 1.0 UV230 nm ---- 2.5–3000 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9950 0.80 ng mL−1 ---- 101.00% [51]
  1. aThe pH of the mixed solvent system