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Table 2 Reported analytical method for the estimation of AT, its metabolites, and co-administered drugs in biological fluids using LC-MS/MS technique

From: A review on liquid chromatographic methods for the bioanalysis of atorvastatin

Analyte(s) Biological matrix Sample preparation Mode of elution; mobile phase Stationary phase Flow rate (mL min−1) Detection Rt (min) Calibration range LOD LOQ % Recovery Ref.
AT and telmisartan Human plasma LLE Isocratic elution; AA (pH 4;10 mM): MeOH (20:80, v/v) Luna C18 (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 0.4 MS ESI+SIM559 3.8 1–35 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9930 ---- 1.00 ng mL−1 81.48% [53]
AT, fluvastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, lovastatin, pitavastatin, and metabolites Human plasma LLE Gradient elution; A = water containing 1% ACN, 0.1% FA,2 mM AF, B = ACN containing 1% water, 0.1% FA, 2 mM AF Hypersil Gold C18 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.9 μm) 0.7 HRMS/MSHESI+/HESI SRM559 → 440 4.5 1–100 ng mL−1 ---- 1.00 ng mL−1 ---- [54]
AT Human plasma LLE Gradient elution; A = 0.2 %FA, B = ACN Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) 0.3 MS/MS ESI+MRM559.05 → 440 ---- 0.2–100 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9998 ---- ---- ---- [55]
AT, simvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pitavastatin, rosuvastatin, pravastatin, and metabolites Human serum PP-MEPS Gradient elution; A = ACN, B = AA (0.5 mM) Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) 0.3 MS/MS ESISRM557.2 → 278.2 2.5 5–1000 ng mL−1r2 = 0.999 ---- 10.00 ng mL−1 ---- [56]
0.5 MS/MS ESISRM557.2 → 278.2 4.4 0.5–500 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9984 ---- 1.00 ng mL−1 ----
0.5 MS/MS ESISRM557.2 → 397 4.4 0.1–100 ng mL–1r2 = 0.9993 ---- 1.00 ng mL−1 ----
AT, o-OH AT, p-OH AT, and AT Lactone Rat plasma SPE Gradient elution; A = ACN, B = 0.1% AcA ZORBAX Eclipse C18 Analytical column (100 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm) 0.4 MS/MS ESI+SRM559.47 → 440.03 4.5 0.1–20 ng mL–1r2 = 0.9982 0.05ng mL−1 ---- ---- [57]
AT, o-OH AT, and p-OH AT Human plasma LLE Isocratic elution; 0.3% FA in water: 0.3% FA in ACN (50:50, v/v) Purospher STAR RP 18 endcapped column (55 × 2 mm, 3 μm) 0.5 MS/MS ESI557.4 → 278.1 2.4 1.99–80.52 ng mL–1r2 = 0.9954 ---- 2.04 ng mL−1 82.87% [58]
AT and amlodipine Human plasma LLE Isocratic elution; ACN:AA buffer (pH 3.0;10 mM) (70:30, v/v) ZORBAX XDB-C18 column (30 × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) 0.15 MS/MS ESI+MRM559.3 → 440.2 3.8 0.2–20 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9990 0.10ng mL−1 0.20 ng mL−1 94.56% [59]
AT, o-OH AT, and p-OH AT Human plasma LLE Isocratic elution; ACN:0.20% FA (65:35,v/v) Luna C18 column, 100 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 0.6 MS/MS ESIMRM557.3 → 397.1 3.7 0.2–202 ng mL−1r2 ≥ 0.9969 ---- ---- 76.14% [60]
Simvastatin, lovastatin, AT, and metabolites Human plasma PP Gradient elution; A = Water, B = ACN (0.2% FA and 2 mM AF) ZORBAX Extend C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) 0.4 MS/MS ESI+SRM559.2 → 440.2 8.4 0.1–100 nMr2 ≥ 0.9950 ---- 0.10 nM 102.08% [61]
AT, o-OH AT, and p-OH AT Human plasma SALLE Gradient elution; A = water (1%FA), B = ACN Kinetex XB C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 2.6 μm) 0.8 MS/MS ESI+MRM559.3 → 440.2 2.2 0.02–15 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9986 ---- 0.02 ng mL−1 87.93% [62]
AT and olmesartan Human plasma LLE Isocratic elution; ACN:MeOH:0.1% FA (80:10:10, v/v/v) Eclipse Plus C18 column (75 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm) 0.5 MS/MS ESI+MRM559.1 → 440.2 2.0 2–80 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9950 0.19ng mL−1 0.60 ng mL−1 80.26% [63]
AT and other cardio vascular drug Human plasma PP Gradient elution; A = 0.1% (v/v) aqueous FA with 1.0 mM AF), B = 0.1 % (v/v) FA with 1.0 mM AF in ACN C18 column (50 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 0.6 MS/MS APCI+MRM559.6 → 440.3 5.5 ---- ---- 7.20 ng mL−1 90.50% [64]
AT, metoprolol, amlodipine, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and metabolites Human plasma PP Gradient elution; A = water with 0.1% FA, B = ACN with 0.1% FA Acquity UPLC CSH column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) 0.5 MS/MS ESI+SRM559 → 440 2.5 0.2–500 ng mL−1r2 ≥ 0.9900 0.30 ng mL−1 ---- 80.00–103.00% [65]
AT and ezetimibe Human plasma LLE Isocratic elution; 0.2% FA in water:ACN (30:70, v/v) Eclipse-plus C18 column (100 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm) 0.6 MS/MS ESI+ MRM559 → 440 2.7 20–3000 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9998 ---- ---- 76.32% [66]
AT, o-OH AT, and p-OH AT Human plasma SPE Isocratic elution; 0.005% FA in water:ACN:MeOH (35:25:40, v/v/v) Ascentis Express C18 column (75 × 4.6 mm, 2.7 μm) 06 MS/MS ESI MRM557.4 → 278.1 4.1 0.05–100.138 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9991 ---- 0.05 ng mL−1 77.40% [67]
Glimepiride, metformin, and AT Human plasma PP Isocratic elution; ACN: AA (pH 3.0;10 mM) (60:40, v/v) Alltima HP C18 HL column (50 × 4.6 mm, 3 μm) 1.1 MS/MS ESI+MRM559.5 → 440.4 1.0 0.5–150.53 ng mL−1r2 ≥ 0.9900 ---- 1.50 ng mL−1 96.72% [68]
Amlodipine, AT, o-OH AT, and p-OH AT Human plasma LLE Isocratic elution; ACN: AA buffer (20 mM) (50:50, v/v) (0.3% FA mixed) Cap- cellpak CR 1:4 column (150 × 2 mm, 5 μm). 0.45 MS/MS ESI+MRM559.42 → 440.25 5.4 0.035–25 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9966 ---- 0.04 ng mL−1 80.26% [69]
Amlodipine, AT, o-OH AT, and p-OH AT Human plasma PP Isocratic elution; water:MeOH (14:86, v/v) (pHa 3.2 with TCA) Synergi 4 μm polar-RP 80Ǻ column (150 × 4.6 mm, 4 μm) 0.5 MS/MS ESI+SRM559.09 → 440.21 5.5 1.5–150 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9999 ---- 1.50 ng mL−1 103.47% [70]
AT and ezetimibe Human plasma LLE Gradient elution; A = 0.1% FA in water, B = ACN Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) 0.7 MS/MS ESI+MRM559.5 → 440.4 1.0 0.1–20 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9990 ---- 0.10 ng mL−1 95.30% [71]
AT and aspirin Human plasma LLE Isocratic elution; 0.2% AcA buffer:MeOH:ACN (20:16:64, v/v/v) ZORBAXXDB Phenyl column (75 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm) 0.8 MS/MS ESI+MRM559.2 → 440 1.3 0.2–151 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9900 ---- 0.60 ng mL−1 82.30% [72]
AT and glimepiride Human plasma LLE Isocratic elution; 0.1% FA:ACN (30:70, v/v) ACE 5 C18 column (50 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 0.5 MS/MS ESI+MRM559.5 → 440.1 1.9 0.2–30 ng mL−1r2 ≥ 0.9950 ---- 0.20 ng mL−1 80.34% [73]
AT and metabolites Plasma SPE, MEPS Gradient elution; A = ACN, B = AA (pH 4;0.5 mM) Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) 0.25 MS/MS ESI+SRM559.5 → 440.4 3.0 0.5–100 nMr2 = 0.9993 0.03 Nm 0.08 nM ---- [74]
AT and metabolites Human plasma PP Gradient elution; A = 0.1% v/v glacial AcA in 10% v/v MeOH in water, B = 40% v/v MeOH in ACN ZORBAX-SB Phenyl column (100 × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) 0.35 MS/MS ESI+MRM559.2 → 440.2 3.9 0.05–100 ng mL−1r2 ≥ 0.9975 ---- 0.05 ng mL−1 88.60–111.00% [75]
AT and metabolites Plasma PP Gradient elution; A = water, B = MeOH (Both with 0.10% FA and 2 mM AA) Raptor Biphenyl column (30 × 3 mm, 5 mm) 0.75–1.2 MS/MS ESI+SRM 559.3 → 440.2 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- [76]
AT and amlodipine Human plasma PP Gradient elution; A = 0.1% of FA in water, B = 0.1% of FA in ACN Eclipse XDB-C18 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) 0.4 MS/MS ESI+MRM559.3 → 440.2 ---- 0.46–1000 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9965 ---- 0.46 ng mL−1 96.23% [77]
Ramipril, AT, benazepril, and amlodipine Human plasma LLE Isocratic elution; 0.1% FA:ACN (15:85, v/v) ZORBAX-SB C18 column (50 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1.0 MS/MS ESI+MRM559 → 440.2 0.6 0.05–20.5 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9900 ---- 0.26 ng mL−1 67.10% [78]
AT and metabolites Human plasma SPE Isocratic elution, ACN:0.60% (v/v) AcA (70:30, v/v) SymmetryC18 column (75 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm) 0.5 MS/MS ESI+559.2 → 440.2 2.67 0.05–252.92 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9900 ---- 0.05 ng mL−1 66.18% [79]
AT and metabolites Human plasma SPE Isocratic elution; ACN:MeOH:0.1% FA in water (50:30:20, v/v/v) Cyno analytical column (125 × 4 mm, 5 μm) 0.5 MS/MS ESIMRM557.31 → 397.16 2.4 0.2–40 ng mL−1r2 ≥ 0.9900 0.06ng mL−1 ---- 50.00–68.00% [80]
Simvastatin and AT Human serum SPE Gradient elution; A = ACN, B = AA(pH 4.0; 0.5 mM) Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) 0.25 MS/MS ESI+,SRM559 → 440 2.51 0.1–100 nMr2 = 0.9999 0.05 nM 0.15 nM 85.66% [81]
AT and o-OH AT Human plasma LLE Isocratic elution; ACN:water (95:5, v/v)(0.2 % FA mixed) Sunfire C18 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) 0.5 MS/MS ESI+MRM559.4 → 440.5 2.66 0.1–10 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9970 ---- 0.10 ng mL−1 85.73% [82]
AT and p-OH AT Human plasma SPE Isocratic elution; 0.1% AcA in water: ACN (40:60, v/v) Genesis C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 4 μm) 0.2 MS/MS ESI+MRM559.3 → 440.1 1.70 0.229–91.6 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9960 ---- 0.23 ng mL−1 53.06% [83]
AT Human plasma LLE Isocratic elution; AA (5 mM): MeOH: Methanoic acid (30:70:0.1, v/v/v) Hypersil C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1.0 MS ESI+SIM559.25 4.45 0.25–20 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9996 ---- 0.25 ng mL−1 58.13% [84]
AT and o-OH AT Human plasma LLE Isocratic elution, ACN:0.1% AcA (70:30, v/v) Atlantis d-C18 column (10 × 3 mm, 3 μm) 0.3 MS/MS ESI+MRM mode559 → 440 3.1 0.10–40 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9990 0.02 ng mL−1 0.10 ng mL−1 91.50% [85]
AT and metabolites Human plasma LLE Iscocartic elution; 0.03% FA:ACN (30:70, v/v) Symmetry C18 column (100 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) 1.0 MS/MS ESI+ MRM559 → 440 1.8 0.1–20 ng mL−1 ---- 0.10 ng mL−1 54.20% [86]
Rosuvastatin, simvastatin, AT, and metabolites Human plasma LLE Gradient elution; A = 10 mM AF and 0.04% FA, B = ACN. Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) 0.4 MS/MS ESI+559.2 → 440.3 3.2 0.25–100 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9910 ---- 0.25 ng mL−1 97.20% [87]
AT and metabolites Human plasma SPE Gradient elution; A = ACN:FA (1 mM) (30:70, v/v), B = ACN: FA (1 mM) (60:40, v/v) Omnisphere C18 column (30 × 2 mm, 3 μm) 0. 2 MS/MS ESI+ SRM559.0 → 440.2 6.2 0.2–30 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9910 0.06 ng mL−1 ---- 53.00–78.00% [88]
AT and metabolites Human serum LLE Gradient elution; A = 950 mL of water +50 mL of MeOH+ 43 mL of 88% FA, B = 950 mL of ACN + 50 mL of MeOH+43 mL of 88% FA. YMC Basic column (50 × 2 mm, 5 mm) 0.3 MS/MS ESI+SRM 559.2 → 440.2 2.78 0.5–200 ng mL−1 ---- 0.50 ng mL−1 60.00–100.00% [89]
AT and metabolites Human plasma LLE Isocratic elution; ACN:0.1% AcA (70:30, v/v) YMC J’Sphere H80 C18 column (150 × 3.2 mm, 4 mm) 0.2 MS/MS ESI+MRM559.3 → 440.2 4.3 0.250–25 g mL−1r2 = 0.9989 ---- 0.25 ng mL−1 98.40% [90]
Dog plasma 4.8 0.250–25 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9994 98.90%
Rat plasma 3.5 0.250–25 ng mL–1r2 = 0.9995 98.00%
AT and metabolites Human plasma PP Isocratic elution; 0.2% FA:ACN (55:45, v/v) Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) 0.4 MS/MS ESI+SRM 559.2 → 440.2 2.4 0.025–200 ng mL−1r2 = 0.988 ---- 0.02 ng mL−1 97.37% [91]
AT, mevastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, pitavastatin, fluvastatin, simvastatin, and lovastatin Human urine Shoot and dilute method Gradient elution; A= 0.1% AcA, B = ACN Kinetex C18 column (50 × 3 mm, 2.6 μm) 0.35 MS/MS ESI+MRM559.3 → 250.2 6.4 1–500 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9946 ---- ---- 92% [92]
Bisoprolol, clopidogrel, and AT Human plasma PP Gradient elution; A = water, B = ACN (0.1% FA) Halo C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 2.7 μm) 0.5 MS/MS ESI+ MRM559.3 → 440.3 3.5 0.5–125 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9950 ---- 0.50 ng mL−1 102.40% [93]
AT Human plasma PP Gradient elution; A = 0.2% (v/v) FA in water, B = ACN Leapsil C18 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 2.7 μm) 0.3 MS/MS ESIMRM557.0 → 453.0 2.0 0.01–200 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9992 ---- 0.05 ng mL−1 85.63–92.51% [94]
AT and amlodipine Human plasma LLE Isocratic elution; ACN: AF (pH 4.5;10 mM) (70:30, v/v) Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) 0.25 MS/MS ESI+MRM557 → 440.2 0.66 0.05–50 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9996 ---- 0.05 ng mL−1 91.30–94.00% [95]
AT and metabolites Human plasma SPE Gradient elution; A = 0.1% AcA in water, B = ACN Genesis C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 4 μm) ---- MS/MS ESI+ MRM559.4 → 440.3 ---- r2 ≥ 0.9900 ---- ---- 94.31% [96]
AT Human Plasma μ-SPE Gradient elution; A = AA (10 Mm), B = ACN C18 column (100 × 3 mm, 5 μm) 0.6 MS/MS ESI+ MRM559.2 → 440.1 4.5 0.2–80 ng mL−1r2 = 0.9965 0.05 ng mL−1 0.20 ng mL−1 94.60% [97]
AT and niacin Human plasma LLE Isocratic elution; ACN: 0.1% FA (80:20, v/v) Hypurity Advance column (50 × 4.6 mm, 5 mm) 0.8 MS/MS ESI+MRM559.0 → 440.3 1.1 0.1–30 ng mL−1r2 ≥ 0.9900 ---- ---- 77.83% [98]
AT and olmesartan Rat plasma PP Isocratic elution; ACN: 0.04% glacial AcA (80:20, v/v) Aquasil C18column (50 × 2.1 mm, 5 μm) 0.25 MS/MS ESI+MRM559.0 → 440.0 1.68 1–1000ng mL−1r2 = 0.9998 0.15 ng mL−1 1.00 ng mL−1 85.72% [99]
AT and metabolites Human plasma LLE Isocratic elution; ACN: Water(75:25, v/v) (0.05 % v/v FA mixed) Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (100 × 3 mm, 1.8 μm) 0.3 MS/MS ESI+MRM559.4 → 440.1 2.30 0.2–40 ng mL−1 ---- 0.20 ng mL−1 48.53% [100]
  1. aThe pH of the mixed solvent system