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Table 3 Pharmacokinetics, brain targeting efficiency (DTE), direct transport percentage (DTP), and nasal bioavailability (NB) of QNP, QMME, QME, and DS following IN and IV administration (data represents mean ± SD, n = 4)

From: Comparative evaluation of intranasally delivered quetiapine loaded mucoadhesive microemulsion and polymeric nanoparticles for brain targeting: pharmacokinetic and gamma scintigraphy studies

Parameters Parts Formulation and route of administration
QNP (IN) QMME (IN) QME (IN) DS (IN) QME (IV) QNP (IV)
Cmax P* 248.19 ± 25.49 348.90 ± 24.62 178.32 ± 14.06 185.67 ± 28.56 485.79 ± 40.56 429.01 ± 24.24
B** 169.27 ± 20.86 243.19 ± 26.97 106.67 ± 35.53 65.44 ± 24.24 59.73 ± 12.00 83.21 ± 15.29
Tmax (min) P 30 30 15 30 30 15
B 15 15 15 15 30 15
AUC0−240 P+ 23458.42 ± 1672.37 31543.4 ± 2708.12 13902.74 ± 2370.79 14123.56 ± 3267.71 48616.57 ± 1850.82 40343.62 ± 1145.12
B++ 13776.15 ± 2021.24 26493.21 ± 2762.87 9785.12 ± 3161.44 6557.42 ± 726.22 8816.71 ± 2835.91 8152.12 ± 1835.11
T1/2 (h) P 1.48 ± 0.23 1.90 ± 0.58 1.21 ± 0.30 1.41 ± 0.22 1.85 ± 0.38 1.49 ± 0.28
B 1.48 ± 0.12 1.99 ± 0.56 1.16 ± 0.32 2.02 ± 0.78 3.02 ± 1.17 1.55 ± 0.17
DTE (%) B 374.93 ± 15.02 453.69 ± 10.17 371.20 ± 12.02 259.14 ± 15.35   
DTP (%) B 73.33 ± 4.14 80.51 ± 6.46 68.66 ± 6.84 54.08 ± 5.17   
NB (%) P 58.15 ± 3.18 59.68 ± 8.73 32.66 ± 5.24 31.97 ± 6.16   
B 168.98 ± 9.27 316.67 ± 19.38 118.65 ± 14.26 83.15 ± 9.82   
  1. P plasma, B brain
  2. *Plasma Cmax: ng/ml
  3. **Brain Cmax: ng/gm
  4. +Plasma AUC: ng min ml−1
  5. ++Brain AUC: ng min gm−1