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Table 3 Characteristics of MNs

From: Emerging era of microneedle array for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications: recent advances and toxicological perspectives

Sr. No. Property of MNs Description
1. Ruggedness Should be able to resist the insertion force without being featured.
2. Penetration Must be penetrated the drug at the required depth of tissue.
3. Dimensions Length :- 100-900microns;
Base width :50-300microns;
Tip diameter: 1-50microns
4. Margin of safety =\( \frac{\mathrm{the}\ \mathrm{for}\mathrm{ce}\ \mathrm{required}\ \mathrm{for}\ \mathrm{piercing}\ \mathrm{the}\ \mathrm{SC}}{\mathrm{the}\ \mathrm{for}\mathrm{ce}\ \mathrm{at}\ \mathrm{which}\ \mathrm{MNs}\ \mathrm{broke}} \)
5. Effect of the MN length on pain As the length of the needle increases from (i.e., 500–1500 μm), the pain increases. Also, an increase in the digit of MNs from 5 to 50 resulted in the increases in the pain.
6. Transepidermal water loss Intact animal skin, sing diffusion cell as well as probes that evaluate transepidermal water loss before and after MN application
7. Biological safety test Extract chemicals from MNs by immersing them in physiological saline and apply them on intact human skin.