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Table 4 The therapeutic effect of plants on various factors and pathways leading to IPF

From: A review on importance of bioactive compounds of medicinal plants in treating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (special emphasis on isoquinoline alkaloids)

S. no. Pathway responsible for IPF Compounds responsible and effect of plant extracts
Increase Decrease
1. Oxidative stress regulations GSH, CAT, SOD, GPx ROS, MDA, NOS, NO, MPO
2. Autophagy inhibition   LC3A, beclin
3. Signalling pathway regulation Nrf2-Keapl TGF-β1/Smads; ROS/MAPK; NF-kB
4. EMT reversion E-Cadherin Vimentin, α-SMA, Snail
5. Inflammation regulation   TNF-α, IL-1β,4,6,8,10,13,17,18
6. Fibrotic regulation   MMP-2,9; collagen, Smad 2/3; TIMP
7. Other roles IFN-γ PDGF, hydroxyproline