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Table 3 Nanoparticulate strategies used and outcome for targeting skin cancer

From: Skin cancer therapeutics: nano-drug delivery vectors—present and beyond

Nano-carrier Drug Target Strategy for drug delivery Outcome References
Spiropyran nanoparticles Docetaxel Tumor penetration Size modification Nanoparticles perceptively contract to 49 nm from around 100 nm upon ultraviolet (UV) exposure [124, 125]
Micelle loaded nanocapsules Docetaxel Tumor penetration Size modification Pea like nanocapsule for the transport of drug loaded micelles can be targeted to tumor cells, activated by near infrared (808 nm) radiation [126]
NO generating liposome Doxorubicin Controlled drug release Size modification Doxorubicin-loaded Polyamidoamine dendrimers and NO donating nitrosoglutathione liposomes incorporated in single large nanocarrier and targeted to tumors. Providing ultrasound therapy, large nanocarrier was ruptured to release dendrimers and liposomes [127]
Magnetic Nanoparticles Camptothecin Controlled drug release Size modification Drug loaded magnetic nanoparticle of 150 nm size form cluster by assembling or dissembling under the exposure of dynamic magnetic field [128, 129]
Dendrimeric Nanobomb Cisplatin Enhance tumor penetration and therapeutic efficacy Modulation of tumor microenvironment Weakly acidic microenvironment of tumor triggers the change in size (at neutral pH 80 nm and at tumor site less than 10 nm) of the drug loaded dendrimer particles accumulate at the tumor [130]
Mesoporous silica Nanoparticles Vertoporphyrin Cellular toxicity Laser Irradiation 120 s and 180 s infrared irradiation showed 50–70% reduction in cell proliferation [131]
Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Aluminum chloride phthalocyanine Cellular toxicity Laser Irradiation Doubling the laser light radiation at 1.0 J/cm-2 showed higher phototoxicity of NPs. Cellular viability remains the same after exposure to free photosensitizer [132]
Transethosomes Ferrous chlorophyllin Tumor targeting Laser Irradiation 50% mice showed complete disappearance of tumor within 2 months and almost all animals showed significant reduction in tumor volume over the period of 7 days after in vivo treatment with photodynamic therapy [133]
PEGylated Gold NPs Metoxantrone   Laser Irradiation At a radiant exposure of 1.3 J/cm2 and drug concentration of 6 μM, the maximum photodynamic therapy efficacy was observed from the nanoparticles [134]
Polymeric Nanoparticles Chlorine 6 and Docetaxel Cellular apoptosis Ultrasound NP treatment was given with ultrasound exposure showed higher rate of apoptosis and cellular necrosis. After sonodynamic therapy increased levels of ROS were observed which are responsible for cellular necrosis by mitochondrial damage [135]
Nanocapsule nanoconjugate and Microbubble” Curcumin and topotecan Growth rate of Tumor and toxicity Ultrasound Ultrasound leads to mild hyperthermia which leads to reduction in tumor growth rate by non-coagulative necrosis mechanism. 93% animals treated with ultrasound survived, where in case of untreated animals the survival rate was 26% [136]
PEGylated gold nanorod and micelles Docetaxel Cellular necrosis Microneedle Microneedle and photothermal therapy was combined which showed better efficacy as compared to non-combined treatments [137]
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles Phthalocyanine with dabrafenib and trametinib Tissue penetration and controlled drug release Microneedle For initial 10 min there was no marked dissimilarity in the amount of nanoparticles in microneedle treated and untreated skin. However, skin penetration rate of NP increased in microneedle treated group to 63% in comparison with 27.2% for treatment without microneedle [138]
pH-responsive lipid nanoparticles Cisplatin Cytotoxicity Microneedle Xenograft tumor model exhibited reduced tumor weight and volume after treatments with microneedle and NP. Apoptosis and tumor cell cytotoxicity were also significantly increased [139]
Micelle Dasatinib Tumor tissue specification and improved circulation time with tumor accumulation Ligand Functionalization Better tumor targeting was achieved as compared to the non-functionalized micelles [140]
Ultradeformable liposomes Vismodegib Hyaluronic acid Ligand Functionalization Liposomes were functionalized to target specific binding sites on receptors present on tumor surface [113]
Transferosomes Paclitaxel R8H3 as CPP   Better penetration of chemotherapeutic agents in the skin was achieved. Increased efficiency to penetrate tumor stroma and transport though tumor cell was achieved with hydrogel of transferosomes [114]