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Table 1 Various adenosine receptors, their transducer pathways, location and actions

From: Adenosine: a partially discovered medicinal agent

Adenosine receptor subtype Transducer mechanism Pharmacological actions
A1 Linked to Gi (subtype of heterotrimeric GTP binding protein). Decreases cAMP, increases potassium ion efflux and decreased calcium ion influx Depressing effect on myocardium (Negative Dromotropy and Negative Chronotropy). Inhibits atrioventricular conduction, prolongs refractory period
A2A and A2B Linked to Gs (subtype of heterotrimeric GTP binding protein). Increases cAMP (Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate) Causes vasodilation of myocardial microvasculature. Causes constriction of hepatic vein, renal vein and afferent arterioles of spleen. Causes inhibition of platelet activity
A3 Linked to Gi Involved in ischemic preconditioning of myocardium. Involved in promoting inflammation by attracting white blood cells; specifically neutrophils (chemo-kinesis)