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Table 2 Example of the various drug-loaded NLCs prepared by different research groups using different methods in the last 6 years (2016–2021)

From: Nanostructured lipid carriers: a promising drug carrier for targeting brain tumours

S. No. Method of preparation Drug loaded Particle size (nm) References
1 Hot homogenization/hot homogenization–ultrasonication method Simvastatin 125.4 ± 2.66 [103]
Ciprofloxacin 193.1 ± 5.1 [104]
Methotrexate 278 ± 10 [105]
Vitamin D3 77–2504 [106]
Docosahexaenoic acid 211 [107]
Epigallocatechin gallate 85 [108]
Cinnamon essential oil 99.98–119.4 [109]
L-ascorbic acid and Gold Tri.E 30 139.9–277.1 [110]
Zotepine 145.8 ± 2.5 [111]
Doxorubicin and β-elemene 190 [112]
Itraconazole 147.31 ± 1.43 [113]
Isotretinoin 154.1 [114]
Fentanyl citrate 90 [115, 116]
Econazole nitrate 134.8–182.73 [117]
Pyrazinamide 200–230 [118]
Progesterone 179 [119]
Melatonin 119 [120]
Dithranol < 300 [121]
Isoliquiritigenin 150.19–251.69 [122]
2 Cold homogenization method Ondansetron hydrochloride 206–280 [123]
Propranolol hydrochloride 385–880 [124]
Apremilast 758 [125]
Carvedilol 308.3–477.1 [126]
Spironolactone or progesterone 225.92 ± 0.41–447.80 ± 0.66 [127]
3 Solvent emulsification evaporation method Doxorubicin 134.0 ± 2.3 [128, 129]
Tacrolimus 400 ± 6.08 nm -1 ± 4.93 µm [130]
Salvia off. Extract 149.1 ± 7.25 [131]
Docetaxel 240.83 ± 3.44 [132, 133]
Vincristine suphate 187 ± 3.52 [134]
4 Solvent emulsification diffusion method Rivastigmine 201–458 [135]
Resveratrol 155.08 ± 3.28 [136]
Adefovir dipivoxil 240.2 ± 2.5 [137]
Cyproterone acetate 100, 300 and 600 [138]
Temozolomide 153.5 ± 1.9 [139]
Olanzapine 158.5 [140]
5 Solvent injection method Etoposide and curcumin 114 [141]
Temazepam 306.6 ± 49.6 [142]
Ondansetron hydrochloride 185.2 ± 1.9 [143]
Resveratrol 88.3 ± 3.1 [144]
Alendronate 186.1 ± 2.8 [145]
Rivastigmine 123.2 ± 2.3 [146]
Etoposide 82.16 ± 2.87 [147]
6 Microemulsion/microemulsion–sonication method Aceclofenac 230 [148]
Olmesartan medoxomil 250 [149]
Voriconazole 250.2 ± 03.1 [150]
Triamcinolone acetonide 112.27–227.18 [151]
Miltefosine 143 ± 16 [152]
Curcumin 225.8 ± 2.3 [153]
Vorinostat 150 [154]
Mefenamic acid 160–310 [155]
Carvacrol 98.42 ± 0.80 [156]
Docetaxel 150–180 [157]
Piroxicam < 300 [158, 159]
Mometasone furoate 163.2 ± 0.522 [160]
7 Double emulsion–solvent evaporation/double emulsion–solvent diffusion method Ceftriaxone 86 [161]
Ficus deltoidea extract 155.9 ± 7.11 [162]
5-fluorouracil 232.4 ± 2.20 and 228.0 ± 1.85 [163]
Epidermal growth factor and curcumin 331.8 [164]
Baclofen 127 ± 10 – 253 ± 5 [165]
Chloroquine phosphate 66.50 ± 1.21 [166]
8 Phase inversion temperature method Vitamin D3 15.69 ± 1.45 nm–58.16 ± 2.41 [167]
Metronidazole 276.1 ± 4.36 [168]
Idebenone and tocopheryl acetate 26.76 ± 0.33 [169]
Ferulic acid and Lavandula essential oil  < 150 [170]
Fluconazole 158.33 ± 2.55 [171]
Astrocaryummurumuru butter 33.4 ± 0.81–33.7 ± 1.15 [172]
9 Supercritical fluid method Trans-resveratrol 180–190 [173]
10 Hot-melt extrusion method Itraconazole 101.20 ± 1.69 [174]
Lidocaine < 50 [100]
Ginsenoside 150–200 [175]
Celecoxib 250.9 [176]
Peppermint essential oil 40–250 [177]