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Table 5 List of research work that was conducted on MDS for topical administration of drugs

From: Microsponges: a breakthrough tool in pharmaceutical research

S. No. Drug Method of preparation Observation References
1 Terbinafine hydrochloride (1) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion Controlled drug release is noticed with less adverse effects, and the requirement for fungal treatment gel administration is also minimised [33]
2 Lornoxicam (2) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion The anti-inflammatory impact of drug-loaded gel MDS was compared to oral conventional formulations using an in vivo approach, and it was discovered that the microsponge-loaded drug was more effective as an anti-inflammatory medicine. Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and active lumbar sciatica therapy all benefit from this treatment [34, 35]
3 Diclofenac sodium (3) Double emulsification technique The improved MDS gel was comparable to commercially available gel and did not cause significant skin responses. The improved formulation is more beneficial for regulated release of diclofenac sodium into the skin [36]
4 Oxiconazole nitrate (4) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion The oxiconazole nitrate MDS gel that was prepared demonstrated potential controlled drug release and is more helpful than traditional formulation treatment [37]
5 Nystatin (5) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion In this study, the formulations of traditional Nystatin gel and nystatin-loaded microsponge gel were compared, and it was discovered that the microsponge gel demonstrated much more drug release than the traditional nystatin gel [38]
6 Voriconazole (6) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion The drug release from a voriconazole-loaded microsponge gel was prolonged, indicating that it might be a potential alternative to conventional therapy in the treatment of fungal infections [39]
7 Itraconazole (7) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion When itraconazole was designed as a microsponge drug delivery system, it was shown to release in a controlled manner [40]
8 Nitrendipine (8) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion A drug that is poorly water soluble was given a sustained release profile [41]
9 Indomethacin (9) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion Indomethacin-loaded MDS outperformed traditional indomethacin formulations as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug [42]
10 Naringenin (10) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion When compared to a simple naringenin gel, a naringenin-loaded microsponge gel demonstrated threefold better drug deposition into the skin. It is a drug that is used to treat atopic dermatitis [43]
11 Mupirocin (11) Emulsion solvent diffusion The Draize patch test revealed that the optimised microsponge formulation of mupirocin was stable and non-irritating to the skin. In a rat surgical wound model infected with S. aureus, a microsponge-based emulgel exhibited long-term effectiveness [44]
12 Oxybenzone (12) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion The oxybenzone-loaded microsponge demonstrated considerable and enhanced oxybenzone topically retention over a prolonged period of time. When compared to the marketed formulation, this MDS preparation also boosts the factor for UV protection, according to this study. It also reduces the drug's toxicity and irritating impact [45]
13 Nebivolol (13) Oil-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion Because the combination of nebivolol microsponge and gel resulted in rapid wound healing, it is also seen as a significant step forward in the treatment of diabetic wounds [46]
14 Erythromycin (14) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion Erythromycin is quickly inactivated in the gastrointestinal environment, causing gastric disturbances such as diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal discomfort. This can be avoided by encapsulating the drug in a microsponge and administering it via a topical route, which provided an 8-h prolonged release [47]
15 Eberconazole nitrate (15) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion The drug-loaded microsponge gel released the drug in a regulated manner, with no discomfort to the rat skin. When compared to the marketed cream of eberconazole nitrate, an in vitro skin deposition investigation revealed a fourfold increase in drug retention in the stratum corneum layer of skin [48]
16 5-Fluorouracil (16) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion The in vivo local bioavailability investigation revealed that the formulation optimised as a microsponge gel of 5-fluorouracil increased drug deposition by 5.5 times. When compared to a commercially available 5-fluorouracil formulation, there was a considerable reduction in skin irritation [49]
17 Nimesulide (17) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion When compared to the conventional preparation of nimesulide gel, prepared microsponge formulations of nimesulide demonstrated more controlled release of pharmacological activity. The outcomes of the therapy of paw oedema inflammation in rats using MDS gel loaded with nimesulide were also significantly improved [50]