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Table 6 Microsponge-based formulations for dermatological applications

From: Microsponges: a breakthrough tool in pharmaceutical research

S. No. Drug Method of preparation Observation Reference
1 Curcumin (18) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion It was observed that the prepared MDS loaded in gelatine capsule shell released 93.2% curcumin, but the capsule packed with pure curcumin released just 11.7% throughout the course of an 8-h period. As a result, the manufactured curcumin microsponge was shown to be a more competent drug delivery system capable of giving an extended-release rate of drug in oral treatment, and therefore it was discovered to have greater promise than the traditional curcumin formulation [52]
2 Paracetamol (19) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion This study demonstrated the potential of MDS to load pharmaceuticals that are required to be used in high quantities, indicating that drugs loaded with MDS had a higher loading efficiency than drugs loaded with alternative microparticle delivery methods [53]
3 Piroxicam (20) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion It was discovered that MDS with a porous structure and a spherical form could be made. Physical parameters of the prepared tablets were found to be acceptable. When compared to piroxicam pure table, there was a significant improvement in dissolving rate [54]
4 Flurbiprofen (21) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion This research discovered that when MDS are compressed, they generate a mechanically robust core tablet with a long-term drug release profile. They also created a colon-specific tablet utilising the pore-plugged approach, and the tablets created using this technology had zero-order release kinetics [55]
5 Etodolac (22) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion Etodolac microsponge was created, and the entrapment altered the drug's release rate, resulting in a reduction in the severity of adverse effects [56]
6 Ketoprofen (23) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion When compared to commercially available ketoprofen tablets, the ketoprofen-loaded MDS exhibited improved bioavailability; nonetheless, these microsponge tablets demonstrated delayed drug release and absorption. As a result, the microsponge tablet improves the lag time for drug emergence in plasma and also maintains drug concentration for a longer period of time [57]
7 Dicyclomine (24) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion This study found that as the amount of emulsifying agent is raised, the size of microsponge particles increases as well. In addition, when raising the drug/polymer ratio, a decrease in manufacturing yield and smaller particle size is seen, while drug content is enhanced. It has also been discovered that increasing the polymer content leads to better drug release control [58]
8 Prednisolone (25) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion Prednisolone-loaded MDS outperformed traditional dosage forms in terms of targeting the medicine to the colon. This stops the medicine from being released in the upper region of the GIT and only delivers it to the colon and the area around it [59]
9 Allopurinol (26) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion With the requisite per cent entrapment efficiency and per cent buoyancy, the produced microsponge formulation of allopurinol displayed a sustained drug release profile for up to 12 h. A one-month stability study was conducted under accelerated conditions, and no significant changes in formulation were observed [60]
10 Domperidone (27) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion In comparison with the usual marketed formulation Domstal®, MDS put in capsules exhibited prolonged drug release of 76.38 per cent at the end of 8 h. As a result, it was determined that the newly created domperidone microsponge formulation would be a potential alternative to traditional gastroparesis and emesis therapy [61]
11 Famotidine (28) Quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion Famotidine-loaded MDS demonstrated a drug release profile that was consistent across time [62]