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Table 2 Pharmaceutical applications of invasomes

From: Smart invasome synthesis, characterizations, pharmaceutical applications, and pharmacokinetic perspective: a review

Sr. no. Drug(s) Applications Skin type Nature of drug Penetration enhancer Phospholipids Results/interference Ref.
1. Temoporfin Photodynamic therapy Abdominal human skin Hydrophobic Cineole Soybean phosphatidylcholine Temoporfin loaded invasomes containing 1% w/v cineole exhibited the highest skin penetration enhancement as compared with the liposomes. [15]
2. Idebenone, azelaic acid Antioxidant/anticancer, anti-acne Excised human skin Hydrophobic Limonene, citral, cineole Soybean phospholipid Invasomes showed a higher permeation rate of azelaic acid. [25]
3. Isotretinoin Treatment of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis Rat skin Hydrophobic Eugenol Egg lecithin Isotretinoin loaded invasomal gel successfully reached the pilosebaceous follicular unit. [27]
4. Finasteride Treatment of alopecia Excised male Wistar rat skin Hydrophobic Limonene, carvone, nerolidol Soya phosphatidylcholine Invasomes as effective vesicular carriers for finasteride iontophoretic transdermal delivery. [30]
5. Carboxyfluorescein, mannitol Model drugs Abdominal human skin Hydrophilic Limonene, citral, 1,8-cineole Soybean phosphatidylcholine Skin perforation with the Dermarollers® enhanced drug-loaded invasome penetration and permeation rate. [32]
6. Cyclosporine A Treatment of psoriasis and dermatological diseases Human skin Hydrophobic Citral, cineole, d-limonene Soybean phosphatidylcholine Invasomes present an effective carrier system for delivering the cyclosporine A to the deeper skin layers. [12]
7. Temoporfin Photodynamic therapy Female nude mice skin Hydrophobic Limonene, citral, cineole Soybean Phosphatidylcholine Drug-loaded invasomes after photoirradiation showed a significantly smaller tumor increase (p < 0.05) as compared with control groups. [33]
8. Anastrozole Anticancer Male Wistar rat skin Hydrophilic Nerolidol, geraniol, fenchone, linalool Soya phosphatidylcholine Developed anastrozole loaded invasomes enhanced the transdermal flux. [34]
9. Minoxidil Treatment of alopecia Newborn pigskin Hydrophobic Cineole, transcutol, labrasol Soya Lecithin The highest minoxidil accumulation in the SC showed by labrasol and cineole based invasomes. [35]
10. Dapsone Antibiotic, anti-inflammatory Wister albino rat skin Hydrophobic Limonene, cineole, citral Phosphatidylcholine Skin retention of dapsone increased using invasomes. [36]
11. Capsaicin Use for pain relief Mice skin Hydrophobic d-limonene Phosphatidylcholine The 0.15% capsaicin-loaded invasomes showed skin permeability significantly higher than conventional liposomes [37]
12. Phenylethyl resorcinol Anti-tyrosinase activity Newborn pig skin Hydrophobic Citral, limonene, Fenchone l-α-Phosphatidylcholine Drug-loaded invasomes exhibited higher tyrosinase inhibition activity and melanin content reduction as compared with the liposomes in B16 melanoma cells. [38]
13. Avanafil Treatment of erectile dysfunction Excised abdominal rat skin Hydrophobic d-limonene, β-citronellol Phospholipon® 90G Avanafil bioavailability and transdermal permeation improved. [39]
14. Isradipine Calcium channel blocker, antihypertensive Wister rat skin Hydrophobic b-Citronellene Phospholipon® 90G Isradipine invasomes accentuate the transdermal flux and showed a substantial and constant decrease in blood pressure. [26]
15. Olmesartan medoxomil Antihypertensive Wistar rat skin Hydrophobic b-Citronellene Phospholipon® 90G The transdermal nano-invasomes formulation showed improvement in the bioavailability of olmesartan. [40]
16. Tolterodine tartrate Antispasmodics Male Wistar rat skin Hydrophobic Limonene, fenchone, anethole Soya phosphotidylcholine 70 The synergetic effect of iontophoretic drug transport and invasome showed a higher permeability rate of tolterodine tartrate. [41]
17. Ferulic acid Antioxidant effect Excised human skin Amphiphilic Limonene, citral, cineole Phosphatidylcholine Ethosomes are superior to invasome for the delivery of ferulic acid into the skin [42]
18. Curcumin Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer Abdominal skin of male Wistar rat Hydrophobic Limonene, Fenchone, Nerolidol Soya phosphatidylcholine 70 Invasomal preparation of complex curcumin with 0.5% limonene improved the solubility and permeation through the skin. [43]