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Table 2 Fabrication techniques for a variety of MNs

From: Emerging era of microneedle array for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications: recent advances and toxicological perspectives

Sr. No. Type Method of construction Ref.
Solid MNs
1.1.1. Silicon MNs Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques, thin-film deposition on a substrate, chemical vapor deposition on a substrate, Silicon dry-etching process, Isotropic etching, etc. [17, 18]
Metal MNs Three-dimensional laser ablation, laser cutting (stainless less), metal electroplating methods (palladium), wet etching photochemical etching (titanium), etc. [19,20,21]
Ceramic MNs Ceramic micro molding and sintering lithography, etc. [5]
2. Coated MNs Dipping or spraying, layer-by-layer (LbL) coating techniques [5]
3. Hollow MNs Deep reactive ion etching of silicon, deep X-ray photolithography, wet chemical etching, and microfabrication, Integrated lithographic molding technique, etc. [5]
4. Dissolving MNs Micromolding [5]
5. Polymeric MNs Photolithography, micro molding, casting, hot embossing, injection molding, investment molding, etc. [5, 22,23,24]