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Table 2 Other (non-limonoid) reported bioactivities in the genus Khaya for the period 2000–2020

From: Biological activities of limonoids in the Genus Khaya (Meliaceae): a review

Khaya species Activity Part Solvent Phytochemicals detected References
K. senegalensis Anti-diabetic at 300 mg/kg BW on T2D induced male Sprague-Dawley rats Root Ethanol N.r. [69]
K. senegalensis Immunostimulating activity against amastigotes (EC50 = 3.85 and 3.98 mg/ml for catechin-(4a,6)-catechin and catechin-(4a,8)-catechin, respectively) Bark Methanol Catechin-(4a,6)-catechin and catechin-(4a,8)-catechin) [70]
K. senegalensis Anthelmintic against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. LC50 0.69 mg/ml (aqueous), LC50 0.51 mg/ml (ethanolic). Bark Ethanol, Aqueous N.r. [71]
K. senegalensis Anticoccidial at 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg against experimentally induced coccidiosis in broiler chicken Stem bark Aqueous Tannins, saponin, cardiac glycosides and steroids [72]
K. senegalensis Antidiarrheal in castor oil-induced diarrhoea in albino rats Stem bark Ethanol, Aqueous Flavonoids, tannins and cardiac glycosides [73]
K. senegalensis Anti-ulcer at 200, 400, 800 mg/kg against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration in Wistar rats Stem bark Methanol Alkaloids, carbohydrate, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, tannins and triterpenes [74]
K. senegalensis Nematocidal at 60 mg on root-knot nematodes in cowpea Bark NA N.r. [75]
K. senegalensis Anti-Trypanosoma against T. brucei brucei in infected Wistar rats Stem bark Methanol N.r. [76]
K. senegalensis Antidermatophytic (MIC 1.2–2.4 μg/ml) against Trichophyton mentagrophyte, Trichophyton verrucosum, Trichophyton terrestre and Microsporum canis Stem bark Methanol, Aqueous, Chloroform Alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, steroids and anthraquinone [77]
K. senegalensis Antioxidant with IC50 3.37 ± 0.61–9.900 ± 1.2 mg/ml for DPPH Leaves Aqueous, ethanol, methanol and Butanol Flavonoids and phenols [78]
K. senegalensis Antioxidant with IC50 46, 37 and 64 μl for leaves, root and stem bark, respectively for xanthine assay; IC50 178, 91 and 122 μl for leaves, root and stem bark, respectively for 2-deoxyguanosine assay Leaves, root, stem bark Methanol Catechin, rutin, quercetin rhamnoside, catechin and procyanidins [79]
K. grandifoliola Gastric antisecretory at 50–500 mg/kg in HCl/ethanol-induced gastric lesions in male Wistar rats Stem bark Aqueous Tannins, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenols, quinones, coumarins, sterols, triterpenoids, and glycosides [80]
K. grandifoliola Desmutagenic and antimutagenic activities in ethyl methanesulphonate and ribose lysine induced mutagen in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 (His). Leaves, flower Ethanol Quercetin 3-O-rhamnoglucoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin and 6-methoxycoumarin-7-O arabinofuranoside [81]
K. grandifoliola In vivo antiviral activity at 100 μg/ml in hepatitis C virus Bark Methylene chloride/methanol (50:50 v/v) Benzene, 1,1′-(oxydiethylidene) bis (1), carbamic acid, (4-methylphenyl)-, 1-phenyl (2) and 6-phenyl, 4-(1′-oxyethylphenyl) [29]
K. grandifoliola Insecticidal activity 85% against Rhyzopertha dominica and 80% against Tribolium castaneum Essential oil from stem bark n-hexane α-pinene, limonene, β-carophyllene, β-pinene, α-phellandrene and citronellol [82]
K. grandifoliola Molluscicidal activity (100% at 1 g/L) against freshwater snails. Bark Ethanol N.r. [83]
K. grandifoliola Immunomodulatory activity at 200 μg/ml on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Polysaccharide fractions of stem bark Ethanol Glucose, galactose, arabinose and rhamnose [84]
K. anthotheca Antiplasmodial activity (IC50 0.955 μg/ml) against Plasmodium falciparum and antitrypanosomal activity (IC50 5.72 μg/ml) against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense Seeds Petroleum ether N.r. [39]
K. anthotheca Antiplatelet activity (EC50 0.97 ± 0.03 μg/ml) in adrenaline (epinephrine) induced platelet aggregation in equine platelets. Leaves Acetone N.r. [85]
K. anthotheca Antioxidant (EC50 0.10) for TEAC assay and (EC50 176.40 ± 26.56 μg/ml) for DPPH assay. Leaves Acetone N.r. [85]
K. ivorensis Antioxidant (IC50 2.08–4.48 μg/ml) for DPPH and (IC50 2.78 μg/ml) for ABTS assay. Stem bark, root Ethanolic Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids and triterpenoids. [86]
K. ivorensis Termicidal activity (100% mortality at 200 and 400 mg/ml) against subterranean termites. Stem bark Ethanolic, aqueous N.r. [87]
  1. N.r. not reported