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Table 1 Application of γ-PGA and derivatives in drug delivery

From: Drug delivery applications of poly-γ-glutamic acid

Drug Formulation Details References
Doxorubicin Ionic complexation with γ-PGA pH-triggered controlled release [12]
Quinine Quinine-loaded hydrophobically modified γ-PGA with l-phenylalanine ethyl ester NP Improved stability and enhanced bioavailability [18]
Gambogic acid π-π stacking interaction with benzylamidated γ-PGA Improved drug loading [22]
Curcumin Curcumin encapsulated modified chitosan/γ-PGA NP Improved drug release [64]
Paclitaxel Complexation with γ-PGA Water solubility of paclitaxel; reduced systemic effect; longer exposure time to tumor cells [65]
Cisplatin Conjugation with γ-PGA Increased antitumor activity and reduced toxicity [66]
Doxorubicin Doxorubicin-loaded NPs of graphene oxide/chitosan oligosaccharide/ γ-PGA Higher antitumor activity, controlled and sustained release [67]
Amphotericin B Amphotericin B-loaded γ-PGA NP Reduced toxicity to erythrocyte [68]
Insulin Enteric-coated Chitosan/γ-PGA NP Orally bioavailable insulin [69]