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Table 7 Analgesic effect of the investigated extracts of M. dispermus leaves and stem barks on formalin-induced paw licking test

From: Phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of different extracts of leaves and stem barks of Macropanax dispermus (Araliaceae): a promising ethnomedicinal plant

Group

0–5 min (early phase)

15–30 min (late phase)

Paw licking time (s)

Percent inhibition of pain

Paw licking time (s)

Percent Inhibition of PAIN

Control

52.98 ± 4.73

72.76 ± 5.55

Morphine sulfate (10 mg/kg)

8.71 ± 0.66***

83.55

4.90 ± 0.66***

93.27

MDML (200 mg/kg)

23.72 ± 3.43**

55.23

18.49 ± 1.23***

74.59

MDML (400 mg/kg)

21.51 ± 3.83**

59.40

12.57 ± 1.95***

82.72

MDHL (200 mg/kg)

49.61 ± 8.07

6.37

43.65 ± 2.25***

40.02

MDHL (400 mg/kg)

37.96 ± 6.82

28.35

18.27 ± 3.42***

74.89

MDTL (200 mg/kg)

41.76 ± 3.63

21.18

28.17 ± 4.74***

61.29

MDTL (400 mg/kg)

34.54 ± 6.81

34.81

12.20 ± 2.13***

83.23

MDCL (200 mg/kg)

49.76 ± 5.05

6.08

29.70 ± 3.61***

59.18

MDCL (400 mg/kg)

32.68 ± 4.05

38.31

25.43 ± 4.37***

65.05

MDEL (200 mg/kg)

52.36 ± 6.69

1.17

14.98 ± 2.68***

79.41

MDEL (400 mg/kg)

33.17 ± 4.87

37.39

8.87 ± 1.06***

87.80

MDAL (200 mg/kg)

46.85 ± 5.20

11.58

63.95 ± 4.91

12.12

MDAL (400 mg/kg)

29.71 ± 4.42*

43.93

19.72 ± 3.08***

72.90

MDMS (200 mg/kg)

45.97 ± 4.52

13.23

16.65 ± 2.26***

77.12

MDMS (400 mg/kg)

24.21 ± 2.34**

54.30

7.56 ± 0.62***

89.61

  1. The results were expressed in Mean ± SEM (standard mean error) *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001 were considered as statistically significant. The statistical analysis followed by one-way analysis of variance (Dunnett's test) compared to the control. MDML = Crude methanol extract of M. dispermus leaves, MDHL = n-hexane fraction of crude methanol extract of M. dispermus leaves, MDTL = Carbon tetrachloride fraction of crude methanol extract of M. dispermus leaves, MDCL = Chloroform fraction of crude methanol extract of M. dispermus leaves, MDEL = Ethyl acetate fraction of crude methanol extract of M. dispermus leaves, MDAL = Aqueous fraction of crude methanol extract of M. dispermus leaves, MDMS = Crude methanol extract of M. dispermus stem barks