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Table 7 Analgesic effect of the investigated extracts of M. dispermus leaves and stem barks on formalin-induced paw licking test

From: Phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of different extracts of leaves and stem barks of Macropanax dispermus (Araliaceae): a promising ethnomedicinal plant

Group 0–5 min (early phase) 15–30 min (late phase)
Paw licking time (s) Percent inhibition of pain Paw licking time (s) Percent Inhibition of PAIN
Control 52.98 ± 4.73 72.76 ± 5.55
Morphine sulfate (10 mg/kg) 8.71 ± 0.66*** 83.55 4.90 ± 0.66*** 93.27
MDML (200 mg/kg) 23.72 ± 3.43** 55.23 18.49 ± 1.23*** 74.59
MDML (400 mg/kg) 21.51 ± 3.83** 59.40 12.57 ± 1.95*** 82.72
MDHL (200 mg/kg) 49.61 ± 8.07 6.37 43.65 ± 2.25*** 40.02
MDHL (400 mg/kg) 37.96 ± 6.82 28.35 18.27 ± 3.42*** 74.89
MDTL (200 mg/kg) 41.76 ± 3.63 21.18 28.17 ± 4.74*** 61.29
MDTL (400 mg/kg) 34.54 ± 6.81 34.81 12.20 ± 2.13*** 83.23
MDCL (200 mg/kg) 49.76 ± 5.05 6.08 29.70 ± 3.61*** 59.18
MDCL (400 mg/kg) 32.68 ± 4.05 38.31 25.43 ± 4.37*** 65.05
MDEL (200 mg/kg) 52.36 ± 6.69 1.17 14.98 ± 2.68*** 79.41
MDEL (400 mg/kg) 33.17 ± 4.87 37.39 8.87 ± 1.06*** 87.80
MDAL (200 mg/kg) 46.85 ± 5.20 11.58 63.95 ± 4.91 12.12
MDAL (400 mg/kg) 29.71 ± 4.42* 43.93 19.72 ± 3.08*** 72.90
MDMS (200 mg/kg) 45.97 ± 4.52 13.23 16.65 ± 2.26*** 77.12
MDMS (400 mg/kg) 24.21 ± 2.34** 54.30 7.56 ± 0.62*** 89.61
  1. The results were expressed in Mean ± SEM (standard mean error) *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001 were considered as statistically significant. The statistical analysis followed by one-way analysis of variance (Dunnett's test) compared to the control. MDML = Crude methanol extract of M. dispermus leaves, MDHL = n-hexane fraction of crude methanol extract of M. dispermus leaves, MDTL = Carbon tetrachloride fraction of crude methanol extract of M. dispermus leaves, MDCL = Chloroform fraction of crude methanol extract of M. dispermus leaves, MDEL = Ethyl acetate fraction of crude methanol extract of M. dispermus leaves, MDAL = Aqueous fraction of crude methanol extract of M. dispermus leaves, MDMS = Crude methanol extract of M. dispermus stem barks