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Table 1 Role of nanofibers for transdermal delivery of various antibiotics/antimicrobial drugs

From: Nanofiber as a novel vehicle for transdermal delivery of therapeutic agents: challenges and opportunities

S. No Drug Polymer Drug loading (%)/diameter (nm) Sophisticated techniques used for characterization/animal model used Key findings Ref
1 Tetracycline hydro chloride PLGA 42.65/519 ± 133 SEM, Cytocompatibility assay/not given Halloysite nanotubes/PLGA nanofibers impregnated with tetracycline hydrochloride showed release of drug up to 42 days followed by excellent in-vitro cytocompatibility in mouse fibroblast cells [52]
2 Ciprofloxacin PVP Not given/410 ± 40 SEM, ATR FT-IR, NMR, TGA/C57BL/6 J mice Ciprofloxacin loaded nanofibers showed quick wound resorption and speedy healing of the wound in experimental animals compared to a transparent polymeric film [53]
3 Ciprofloxacin PVA/Dextran Not given/200–300 SEM, FT-IR, TGA/not given Ciprofloxacin loaded nanofibers showed in-vitro drug release through a non-Fickian diffusion mechanism indicating their effectiveness to deliver ciprofloxacin transdermally [54]
4 Teicoplanin Chitosan/PEO 63.06 ± 0.19/272.57 ± 54.15 SEM, FT-IR, DSC/Wistar rats Nanofibers loaded with 4% teicoplanin showed its sustained release up to twelve days, high in-vitro antibacterial effect and cytocompatibility, and significant wound reduction in experimental animals [55]
5 Tetracycline Dextran, PCL, GO 42/30–50 SEM, FT-IR/not given Tetracycline loaded nanofibers containing 50% (w/w) dextran showed its sustained release for three days followed by high therapeutic activity against E. coli and S. aureus in-vitro [56]
6 Chloro tetracycline hydro chloride, Tetracycline hydro chloride, Amphotericin B PCL, PLA Not given/300–400 SEM/not given Nanofibers composed of polymers PCL: PLA (3:1) showed the quickest in-vitro release of tetracycline hydrochloride and slowest release of amphotericin B in PBS (pH 7.35) followed by good antibacterial activity against S. aureus indicating their suitability for transdermal drug delivery [57]
7 Ciprofloxacin hydro chloride Sodium alginate, PEO, Pluronic F-127 51.0 ± 6.7/161 SEM, FT-IR/not given Developed nanofibers released 24% ciprofloxacin hydrochloride for the first twenty hours of study through the mechanism of Fickian diffusion indicating their efficacy for transdermal drug delivery for treating wounds [58]
8 Not given Chitosan, PVA Not given/279.8 SEM, histology of wound tissue/Wistar rats Nanofibers composed of chitosan and PVA (75:25) showed speedy wound recovery in diabetic rats compared to the control group of the animals [59]
9 Neomycin PSSA-MA, PVA 46/250 ± 21 FT-IR, cytotoxicity analysis/Wistar rats Neomycin loaded PSSA-MA and PVA nanofibers effectively reduced the size of wound in Wistar rats during the first week of treatment compared to polymeric gauze and blank nanofibers composed of the same polymers [60]