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Table 4 A brief overview of research work done for transdermal delivery of various categories of drugs using nanofibers

From: Nanofiber as a novel vehicle for transdermal delivery of therapeutic agents: challenges and opportunities

S. No



Drug loading (%)/diameter (nm)

Sophisticated techniques used for characterization/animal model used

Key findings



Vitamin B12

Chitosan mixed with phospho-lipids

82.5/1.1 ± 0.4 µm

SEM, Illumination fluorescence microscopy, FT-IR/not given

Illumination fluorescence microscopy revealed high in-vitro cytocompatibility of vitamin B12 loaded nanofibers in L929 cells followed by 90% in-vitro release of Vitamin B12 within 24 h



Gabapentin and aceta-minophen

Polyethylene oxide, polyvinyl alcohol, sodium alginate

95.44 (for gabapentin in polyethylene oxide nanofibers), 93.67 (for acetaminophen in polyvinyl alcohol and sodium alginate nanofibers)/252 (for gabapentin in polyethylene oxide nanofibers), 220 (for acetaminophen in polyvinyl alcohol and sodium alginate nanofibers

SEM, FT-IR, TGA/not given

The first layer of developed bilayered nanofibers showed an initial burst release of gabapentin followed by controlled release of gabapentin plus acetaminophen through the second layer due to the presence of calcium alginate enhancing activity of gabapentin as a pain killer



Gallic Acid

Cellulose acetate

Not given/701 ± 162

SEM, DSC/not given

Nanofibers loaded with 7.5% w/w gallic acid showed the quickest release within 24 h period along with smooth surface morphology and was considered effective for transdermal drug delivery



Fluorescein iso-thiocyanate loaded on ethosomes

Polyvinyl alcohol and hydroxyl ethylcellulose

Not given/479.14 ± 37

SEM, DSC, FT-IR, XRD/not given

Ethosomes loaded with fluorescein isothiocyanate were effectively distributed in the nanofibrous scaffold as predicted in XRD and FT-IR analysis and nanofibers also showed higher in-vitro release of fluorescein isothiocyanate (43.5%) compared to ethosomes (26.5%)



Epidermal growth factors (EGF)

Gelatin, laponite

Not given/98.1 ± 1.3

SEM/not given

Nanofibers explored in the form of hydrogel showed high in-vitro adhesion and 93.1 ± 1.5% wound closure after 14 days of application compared to control groups





84.51 ± 2.1/112 ± 1.9

SEM, FT-IR, XRD/not given

Colchicine loaded nanofibers showed its excellent ex-vivo skin permeation followed by remarkable cytotoxicity against melanoma cell lines (A-375 cell line) in-vitro



Citrulline Malate

Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)

Not given/168

SEM, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy

The flexibility of citrulline malate loaded nanofibers increased with an increasing amount of citrulline malate in formulation followed by its extended-release up to 20 h in-vitro