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Table 1 Natural components that improve mitochondrial dysfunction and/or their biogenesis

From: Targeting mitochondrial biogenesis: a potential approach for preventing and controlling diabetes

Sl. No. Name of the agent Animal models/Human trials Net effect on mitochondria References
1 Lipoic acid (LA) Rat skeletal muscle Decreased ROS production, Stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, Increased Fatty acid oxidation [58]
2 Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) Rat, mice, dogs Elevates mitochondrial enzyme activity, Improves mitochondrial function [59]
3 B vitamins (Biotin) Rat hepatocytes Promote cGMP, Stimulate PGC-1α to enhance mitochondrial biogenesis just as nitric oxide does [60]
4 A combination of LA, ALCAR and B vitamins Goto–Kakizaki (GK) rats Enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis, Improved mitochondrial function [61]
5 Berberine 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes Increases AMPK activity [62]
6 Hydroxytyrosol (HT) 3T3-L1 adipocytes Enhancement of mitochondrial function: it produced, Increases in the activity and protein expression of mitochondrial complexes I, II, III, IV and V [63]
7 Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) 3T3-L1adipocytes Increased mitochondrial biogenesis, Increased mitochondrial mass, Increased oxygen consumption and expression of complex I, II, V, mt-DNA, and PGC-1α [64]
8 Resveratrol (RSV) Mice skeletal muscles Increased mitochondrial biogenesis, Increased PGC-1α, Increased oxidation [65]