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Table 1 Medications, risk scores and primary clinical condition. Medications contained in the Prudhomme study which are prescribed for one of the three conditions are included in the PA list

From: Using a pilot-centric, qualitative drug risk assessment model to identify opportunities for implementing pharmacogenetics

Medication Risk Score Medication Risk Score Medication Risk Score
Asthma
Albuterol 573,582 Formoterol 473,566.1 Prednisone 0
Beclomethasone 22,340.1 Levalbuterol 403,040 Reslizumab 112,500
Benralizumab 4100 Mepolizumab 168,900 Salmeterol 211,111
Budesonide 543,111 Metaproterenol 534,473 Theophylline 2,890,604
Ciclesonide 214,540 Methacholine 100.2 Tiotropium 739,461
Cromolyn 31 Mometasone 135,510 Triamcinolone 195,420
Dupilumab 5300 Montelukast 243,718 Umeclidinium 513,220
Dyphylline/ guaifenesin 0 Nedocromil 91,500 Zafirlukast 63,112
Flunisolide 709,287 Omalizumab 165,471 Zileuton 464,548
Fluticasone 53,400     
Diabetes
Acarbose 322,890 Empagliflozin 4600 Pioglitazone 744,213
Albiglutide 458,142 Ertugliflozin 410,223 Pramlintide 580,200
Alogliptin 144,160 Glipizide 632,630 Repaglinide 558,800.1
Bromocriptine 658,953 Glyburide 121,261 Rosiglitazone 341,048
Canagliflozin 632,886.1 Liraglutide 1,048,504 Saxagliptin 607,510
Chlorpropamide 101,101 Metformin 1,093,373.2 Semaglutide 507,340
Dapagliflozin 116,310.1 Miglitol 288,785 Sitagliptin 113,000
Dulaglutide 455,611 Nateglinide 417,000 Tolbutamide 1020
Hypertension
Amiloride 91,010 Diltiazem 336,361 Olmesartan 638,531
Atenolol 1,016,222 Enalapril 312,240 Perindopril 565,340.2
Benazepril 100,010 Furosemide 48,550 Ramipril 595,480.1
Bevacizumab 3,132,500 Hydralazine 224,233.1 Sorafenib 1,359,560
Bisoprolol 1,057,507 Hydrochlorothiazide 58,440 Spironolactone 215,486.2
Candesartan 204,626.1 Irbesartan 667,432 Tacrolimus 3,700,360
Captopril 544,254.2 Lisinopril 622,310 Trandolapril 712,547
Carvedilol 1,231,020.2 Losartan 643,100 Valsartan 230,701.1
Chlorothiazide 50,500 Metoprolol 1,095,114.2 Verapamil 435,440
Chlorthalidone 208,312.1 Nebivolol 781,311   
Clonidine 2,038,925 Nifedipine 737,460   
Control (Prudhomme)
Allopurinol 103,720 Esomeprazole 181,730 Lisinopril 622,310
Amlodipine 263,990.2 Fexofenadine 40,630 Losartan 643,100
Atorvastatin 74,950 Finasteride 231,310 Meloxicam 225,270
Augmentin 143,620 Fluticasone 53,400 Ranitidine 40,320
Azilsartan 222,510 Hydrochloro-thiazide 58,440 Simvastatin 326,810
Ciprofloxacin 252,000 Ibuprofen 612,570 Valacyclovir 260,380
Doxycycline 155,950 Linagliptin 203,110   
  1. Overall drug risk scores were calculated by summing the risk scores for each adverse effect, which were a multiplication of the effect frequency along with a severity multiplier coefficient determined by 3 board-certified flight surgeons. Details of the procedure are presented in the methods.