Use of plants has been there in India since the ancient times. These are used normally for treatment of a number of diseases. Nowadays, people are going back to the old treatment strategies . The traditional Ayurvedic approach to health is comprehensive, effective, and promising. One of the most noteworthy contributions of Ayurveda is the science of herbal combinations where traditional medical practitioners prescribe a combination of herbal products for better effect [2, 3]. So, this approach is used in the current study to treat urolithiasis. Worldwide prevalence varies among specific areas with the highest percentage of 7–13% for North America, 5–9% for Europe, and 1–5% for Asian countries . The incidence of urinary stones has been rising over the previous years because of change in lifestyle and food intake habits .
The etiology of this disease is multi-factorial and is powerfully related to nutritional lifestyle habits or practices . Although there are few recent reports of beneficial effects of medical treatments in enhancing clearance of calculi in the distal ureters , no promising antiurolithiatic agent has been reported, especially for the prevention of the recurrence of stones. In this regard, many plants have been conventionally used to treat kidney calculi and have been shown to be effective. In Ayurveda and folk medicine, many herbs are used in management of urolithiasis. Many researchers throughout the world are working on ascertaining the potential of herbs in treatment of this disorder. Some of the Indian medicinal plants having antiurolithiatic potential are Sesbania grandiflora L. Pers , Aerva lanata L. Juss. Ex. Schult. , Moringa oleifera Lam. , Asparagus racemosus Willd. , Rotula aquatica Lour. , Cyclea peltata (Lam.) Hook F. & Thoms , Tribulus terrestris L. , Musa sapienta L. , Ammannia baccifera L. , Mimosa pudica L. , Crataeva nurvala Buch-Ham. , etc.
Crataeva nurvala (Capparidaceae) is an evergreen tree indigenous to India [18,19,20]. It is prevalently found grown in other countries namely Bangladesh, Pakistan, Philippines, South America, China, and Africa. It is a leafy, moderate-sized deciduous tree with soft wood and fragrant whitish to milky white colored, polygamous flowers. The fruit of this medicinal tree is berry with globe shape and woody rind embedding seeds in yellow pulp. The outer surface of bark is wrinkled and grey white in color, covered with large number of lenticels. The flowering and fruiting season of this tree is December–May and June–August. Traditionally, its bark is used as demulcent, tonic, stomachic, laxative, diuretic, antipyretic, and rubefacient whereas roots are lithotropic and laxative .
Dolichos biflorus (Fabaceae) is a slender, trailing or sub-erect, branched, and downing herb, native to India and is found at an altitude of up to 1000 m. It is mainly cultivated in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka . This plant has alternate, stipulate and trifoliate leaves, membranous leaflets, and axillary, papilionaceous usually yellow (or white) flowers. The flowers may be more than one together but without a common peduncle. The pods are 3.7–5.0 cm by 0.6–0.8 cm, re-curved, tipped with a persistent style. The number of seeds is 5–6 per pod. Traditionally, young plant is used mainly for kidney disorders, dysuria, sores, and tumors. Seeds of the plant are used as diuretic, spasmolytic, for treatment of urinary trouble, kidney stones, piles, pain, constipation, wounds, urinary calculi, cough, edema, and asthma. The soup of seeds is beneficial in enlarged liver and spleen and menstrual complaints whereas aqueous extract of the seeds is given to woman after child birth .
The current study was initiated with the aim of evaluating the efficacy of combined extract of Dolichos biflorus and Crataeva nurvala on kidney functioning using ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in experimental animals. The main aim of the study is to provide a better efficacious drug which is having lesser or no side-effects and a better treatment option for patients suffering from urolithiasis.
The current study highlighted the efficacy of traditionally used medicinal herbs’ use in treatment of urolithiasis which may prove beneficial as very less number of effective medicines are there, and no proven drug therapy is in use currently. Besides, the study may be further extended for the drugs’ mechanistic pathway delineation and determine proper functioning of the drug after administration in vivo.