Phytochemical screening of aqueous methanol fraction of Hibsicus asper revealed the presence of phyto-compounds that have been documented to have antioxidant and other activities. Flavonoids have been shown to be highly effective scavengers of most oxidizing molecules, including singlet oxygen, and various free radicals  implicated in several diseases. Flavonoids have anti-oxidative and mucosal protective effect [20, 21]. Flavonoid-rich vegetables are widely used functional foods since they can be used to treat cardiovascular diseases . They are characterized by their good bioavailability and, hence, constant dietary consumption of flavonoids has been reported to give pharmacologically relevant plasma concentrations in humans . In addition, several studies have reported the possible cardioprotective effects of flavonoids against ischemia reperfusion [24, 25]. Saponins may activate mucous membrane protective factors, while tannins reduce the permeability of mucosa to chemical irritation. Consequently, they reduce inflammation, exert astringent and protective action on the stomach mucosa, and curb excess acidity. In addition, terpenoids and alkaloid compounds have also been reported to have potent activity against gastric ulcers [26, 27]. Terpenoids have been reported to relax cardiovascular smooth muscle by inhibition of Ca2+ influx in vascular smooth muscle or via quenching of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and stimulation of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis . The presence of these phytochemicals in methanol fraction of H. asper leaves possibly indicates its numerous medicinal properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, and anti-oxidative properties, among others.
Among the identified bioactive components, 9, 12, 15-Octadecatrien-1-ol (Z, Z, Z) has highest percent peak area. This compound has antioxidant and antibacterial properties . n-Hexadecanoic acid has antioxidant, 5- alpha-reductase inhibitor, anti-fibrinolytic, hemolytic, antimicrobial activity, hypocholesterolemic nematicide, pesticide, antiandrogenic flavor, and hemolytic properties . 9, 12, 15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester (Z, Z, Z) has anti-inflammatory, cancer preventive, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and hypocholesterolemic properties . Phenolic compounds, esters, alkanes, aldehydes, alkenes, and ketones are the other major volatile compounds present which have antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, and cytotoxic activities . Phytol was reported with antioxidant and neuroprotective, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diuretic activities [29, 30]. 9,12- Octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester has anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, hepatoprotective, antiandrogenic, hypocholesterolemic, nematicide, 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor, antihistaminic, anticoronary, insectifuge, antieczemic, and antiacne properties . Methyl palmitate reported as antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, nematicide, flavoring agents, hemolytic, and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor . Cycloheptasiloxane, tetradecamethyl- has antimicrobial, antiseptic, hair-conditioning agent, and skin-conditioning agent-emollient properties .