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Table 2 List of potential pipeline marine natural products under clinical trails against cancer and other human diseases

From: Marine-derived pipeline anticancer natural products: a review of their pharmacotherapeutic potential and molecular mechanisms

Indication Compounds Marine organism source Mechanism of action Current status References
Anticancer Aplidine (Aplidin®) (dehydrodidemnin B) Aplidium, Candida albicans
Mediterranean tunicate
Antiproliferative action. Acts by blocking the cell cycle arrest and inducing apoptosis Multiple myeloma (Phase III of clinical trials) T-cell lymphoma (Phase II of clinical trials) [147, 150,151,152,153,154,155]
Plinabulin Synthetic analog of a natural product isolated from a marine fungus (Aspergillus spp.) Inhibition of tubulin polymerization Non-small cell lung cancer (Phase III of clinical trials) Non-small cell lung cancer (Phase III of clinical trials) [13]
Salinosporamide A (NPI-0052/Marizomib) Marine Actinobacteria Salinispora tropica Proteasome inhibitor Multiple myeloma (Phase I of clinical trials) [54,55,56,57, 59,60,61,62]
Dolstatin 10 Sea hare Dolabella auricularia, a cyanobacterial origin Inhibition of the tubulin polymerization and GTP hydrolysis Phase I and II but it failed in phase II, however, Dolstatins are in phase III trials [117,118,119,120, 122, 125, 127, 128, 132, 133]
Dolstatin 15 Sea hare Dolabella auricularia Antimitotic and capable of disrupting tubulin polymerization Phase II clinical trials [168,169,170,171,172]
Coibamide A Leptolyngbya cyanobacterium Induce apoptosis Under preclinical investigation [168,169,170]
Alzheimer’s disease Bryostatin 1, Ectoprocta species‑Bugula Neritina Potent modulator of protein kinase C Phase II of clinical trials [45]
DMXB-A Synthetic analog of the toxic alkaloid produced by nemertines worm species, such as Paranemertes peregrine and Amphiporus lactifloreu Acts by improving cognition and sensory deficit Phase I and II of clinical trials completed
Analgesics Tetrodotoxin Isolated from fish, algae, and bacteria Blocks voltage‑dependent sodium channels Phase II and III of clinical trials for neuropathic pain in cancer patients and peripheral neuralgia in cancer patients, respectively [45]
Antibacterial Anthracimycin Marine Actinobacteria Activity against Bacillus anthracis and MRSA. MoA unclear Preliminary stages of drug development [45]