Cardiovascular diseases are described as range of conditions that affect the heart. Coronary artery disease, heart rhythm problems, and heart defects are all included in the category of cardiovascular diseases . Heart attacks, coronary artery disease, and stroke could all be caused by restricted or clogged blood vessels in the cardiovascular system. Risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases include age, sex, ethnicity, diet, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, and genetic predisposition [2, 3].
The most common pathogenic cause behind ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke is thrombosis . Thrombosis occurs when blood vessels become blocked because of excessive blood clotting or defective anti-clotting factor function . Several variables, including significant activation of thrombin proteinases and activated factor X, cause excessive blood clot formation. According to Choi et al.  inhibition of proteinases like thrombin and activated factor X, as well as direct suppression of fibrin and blood clot formation, may be used to treat thrombosis. Platelet activation and aggregation are typical features of thrombogenesis. The expression of cell surface receptors is induced by platelet activation. adhesion, and small molecules which affect the leukocytes, endothelial cells, and other vascular cells . Platelet granules contain adhesive proteins, coagulation factors, mitogenic and angiogenic factors, CXC and CC chemokines, and other factors including platelet factor 4, PF4/CXCL4 that may influence neutrophils and macrophages, contributing to atherosclerosis .
Several cardioprotective agents play essential role in inhibiting or reducing the development of coronary artery diseases. Some examples of these cardioprotective agents are, heparin, fondaprinux, rivaroxaban, streptokinase, aspirin [7,8,9]. However, the usefulness of some of these agents has been limited due to their adverse effects .
Costus afer is a tropical perennial medicinal plant with an unbranched creeping rhizome that grows in wet or shaded forests and along riverbanks. C. afer can be found throughout Africa's forest belt from Senegal to Ethiopia, in the East to Tanzania, Malawi, and Angola, and in the South and West to South Africa and West Africa. In Nigeria, Ghana, Togo, and Cameroon, it is a common plant [10, 11]. Costus is a pantropical genus of around 70 species, 40 of which are found in tropical America, 25 in tropical Africa, and 5 in Southeast Asia . C. afer stem extract is effective in the treatment of cough, inflammation, diabetes, arthritis, and rheumatism. Its decoction has also been used as a laxative, purgative, and diuretic in the past. Due to the presence of bioactive substances such polyphenolics, saponin, alkaloids, and glycosides, it is widely known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective properties [10, 12].