Ayurveda is an ancient science of India and helps the human body to keep fit while providing cures from indigenous plants, animal and mineral origin products for various ailments . Ayurveda is a complete and holistic traditional healthcare system of India that contains both preventive and therapeutic aspects [2, 3]. Medicated oil is one of the important dosage forms widely described in Ayurvedic pharmaceutics. For Taila preparation, specific oil is boiled with prescribed liquid media (Svarasa or Kwatha, etc.) and a fine paste (Kalka) of the drugs specified in the formulation composition. Unless specified otherwise, taila means Tila taila .
Anu Taila is an Ayurvedic medicated oil used for nasya since ancient times to cure dryness of the skin (twak raukshya), graying of hair (palita), a disorder of body parts above clavicle (urdh vajatrugatarog), emaciation of shoulder (skandha shushkata), wasting in cervical region (greeva shushkata), emaciation of chest muscles (vaksha shushkata) [4, 5]. Anu Taila contains about 25 herbs Aegle marmelos (roots), Aquilaria agallocha (heartwood), Asparagus racemosus (roots), Berberis aristata (stem), Cedrus deodara (heartwood), Cinnamomum tamala (leaves), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (stem bark), Coleus vettiveroides (roots), Cyperus scariosus (rhizomes), Cyperus rotundus (rhizomes), Desmodium gangetium (whole plant), Elettaria cardamomum (seeds), Embelia ribes (fruits), Glycyrrhiza glabra (roots), Hemidesmus indicus (roots), Leptadenia reticulata Linn. (roots), Nelumbo nucifera (flowers), Nymphaea stellata (flowers), Pluchea lanceolata (roots), Santalum album (heartwood), Solanum indicum (whole plant), Solanum surattense (whole plant), Uraria Picta (whole plant), Vetiveria zizanioides (roots), Vitex negundo (seeds), water, goat milk, and all the ingredients are blended in the form of decoction as per the Ayurvedic Formulary of India (AFI) [4, 6]. This decoction is slowly infused with sesame oil (Tila taila) over a long time with controlled heating until the oil's desired quality is obtained. Goat milk is also used in the last cycle only. Hence, it is said that regular use of Anu Taila nasya regains the sharpness of the sense organs, clarity of voice, and facial glow. It strengthens the muscles of the neck, shoulders, and chest [7, 8]. It cures hair fall and prevents premature graying of hair and the premature appearance of wrinkles on the face . In the recent clinical study, Anu Taila is used as one of the medicines in Ayurvedic treatment regime as nasal drop in the treatment of COVID-19.
Moreover, disease of the upper part of the body remains no more frequent with the regular use of Anu Taila. An Ayurvedic formulation must confirm test for identity, potency, purity, safety, and efficacy as per Pharmacopeial standards and WHO guidelines . Quality assurance of traditional formulations relies upon good manufacturing practices with adequate batch-to-batch analysis and a standardized method of preparation .
In the current study, an attempt was made to develop quality control protocols and evaluate the standardization parameters like refractive index, iodine value, saponification value, peroxide value, acid value, rancidity, HPTLC fingerprint profile along with major bioactive compound and quantification of Berberine chloride, Negundoside, and Marmelosin by HPLC. Establishing quality protocol and standard parameters like physicochemical and other parameters and estimating this preparation's therapeutic bioactive compounds are highly significant for quality control. Routine use of such scientific techniques will lead to quality control and assurance of the Ayurvedic preparations to a certain extent. It would help in building confidence in the use of these Ayurvedic formulations . We evaluated the Taila for physicochemical parameters, HPTLC fingerprint profiling, and HPLC quantification of selected bioactive markers.