- Open Access
Ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents, and evidence-based pharmacological properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: extensive overview
Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences volume 7, Article number: 153 (2021)
The Chenopodium genus is a plant family widely spread worldwide that includes various plant species reputed to possess several medicinal virtues in folk medicines. Chenopodium ambrosioides L. is among the most used plants in traditional medicines worldwide. This review aimed to highlight ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical status, and pharmacological properties of C. ambrosioides L.
Main body of the abstract
The analysis of relevant data highlights various ethnomedicinal uses against human and veterinary diseases in forty countries. Most indications consisted of gastrointestinal tract dysfunctioning troubles and worms parasitemia. Around 330 chemical compounds have been identified in different plant parts, especially in its essential oil fractions (59.84%). However, only a few compounds—mainly monoterpenes and glycosides—have been isolated and characterized. Experimental pharmacological studies validated a large scale of significant health benefits. It appeared that many monoterpenes are antioxidant, insecticidal, trypanocidal, analgesic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, acaricidal, amoebicidal, anthelmintic, anticancer, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antidiarrheal, antifertility, antifungal, anti-leishmanial, antimalarial, antipyretic, antisickling, antischistosomal, antiulcer, anxiolytic, immunomodulatory, molluscicidal, and vasorelaxant agents.
Thus, the Chenopodium ambrosioides species necessitates further chemical studies to isolate and characterize new bioactive secondary metabolites and pharmacological investigations to precise the mechanisms of action before clinical trials.
Ethnomedicine is part of folk medicine practiced by a given population and primarily based on the use of plant or herbal materials presented in various pharmaceutical formulations containing active ingredients . Plants are sources of therapeutically and economically valuable compounds . In recent decades, due to a large amount of research on phytochemistry and pharmacognosy, natural plant products have gained particular importance in treating different diseases . Over 50,000 plants would possess therapeutic virtues.
More than 80% of the population in developing countries depends primarily on plant-based medicines for basic healthcare needs [4, 5]. Since the early 1970s, the WHO keeps stimulating governments in developing countries to benefit from local knowledge on traditional herbal medicaments . Among botanical species of great value, the Chenopodium genus occupies a vital place. This genus includes about 102 genera and 1400 annual herbaceous species with a pungent smell distributed worldwide, especially in the moderate and subtropical zone [7, 8].
The species Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Amaranthaceae), also well known as Mexican tea, Jesuit’s tea or bluebush, Indian goosefoot, Spanish tea, or wormseed in English, is an annual or perennial shrub with a strong aromatic smell. It is widely distributed in West Africa, especially in Nigeria, Senegal, Ghana, and Cameroon .
Easy to grow, the plant grows on light (sandy), medium, heavy, acid, neutral, and alkaline soils (pH ranging from 5.2 to 8.3). It prefers moist soil but cannot be growing in the shade. It is mainly found on dry wasteland and cultivated ground. It is a cultivated and cosmopolitan species. The WHO pointed out that C. ambrosioides is among the most used plants in traditional medicines worldwide  widely used as an edible medicinal plant (especially leaves and seeds). Some recent review studies have reported primary data on conventional uses, phytochemicals, and pharmacological properties of C. ambrosioides [10,11,12].
We designed this review to complement that checks in a more detailed overview of medicinal uses, chemical composition, and evidence-based pharmacological properties that are missing.
Literature review method
The data presented are from full articles in English or French retrieved via Internet search with Google Scholar, PubMed/Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, the Wiley Online Library, Web of Science, and any other helpful search engines using Chenopodium ambrosioides OR Dysphania ambrosioides as the primary keywords, without time limit restriction. A total of 309 references were cited in this present review retrieved from those scientific engines.
Botanical description of Chenopodium ambrosioides
Chenopodium ambrosioides is a perennial tropical herb with a grooved, multi-branched reddish stem and a robust disagreeable scent growing that reaches up to 1 m high (Fig. 1). The leaves are oval (up to 4 cm long and 1 cm wide), sharply toothed, alternate, and a short petiole. The flowers are small and green, and the seeds are very small and green when fresh and black when dry. His inflorescence is the racemose type, presenting small flowers green colored. The sources are numerous, spherical, and have black color [8, 13].
Taxonomical classification of C. ambrosioides L
Order: Caryophyllales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl
Family: Amaranthaceae Juss.
Subfamily: Chenopodioideae Burnett
Genus: Dysphania R.Br.
Synonym: Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants.
Table 1 describes data collected from ethnopharmacological investigations from forty countries. The information includes vernacular names, parts used, local uses, formulations, voucher numbers, and references for each country. Only 64.33% of voucher numbers have been listed for plant identification and authentification.
As indicated in Fig. 2a, the leaves were the most used parts (50.26%), followed by the whole (entire) plant (11.79%), aerial parts (8.72%), roots (6.15%), flowers, and stems (5.64%), seeds (3.59%), branches (2.05%), twigs (1.54%), bark, and shoots (1.03%). Several studies supported the use of leaves as the most used part of traditional medicines worldwide. According to Moshi and al ., the frequent use of leaves is associated with their ease of accessibility among the aboveground parts of plants in natural ecosystems. Overall, decoction has often been found as an adequate formulation of herbal remedies as it is easy to prepare by mixing a drug with boiling water .
As indicated in Fig. 2a, the leaves were the most used parts (50.26%), followed by the whole (entire) plant (11.79%), aerial parts (8.72%), roots (6.15%), flowers, and stems (5.64%), seeds (3.59%), branches (2.05%), twigs (1.54%), bark, and shoots (1.03%). Several studies supported the use of leaves as the most used part of traditional medicines worldwide. According to Moshi and al ., the frequent use of leaves is associated with ease of accessibility among the aboveground parts of plants in natural ecosystems.
The results in Fig. 2b show that infusion is the most used formulation mode (27.36%), followed by decoction (23.88%). Many reasons can explain infusion as the most mode of preparation of C. ambrosioides. Infusion is convenient for soft plant parts, especially those containing volatile compounds, so that the solvent (water) may quickly enter into the tissues in a short preparation time; the plant is very rich in essential oils.
Figure 2c shows that the oral route is the most used (56.36%). This route presents many advantages, including safety, good patient compliance, ease of ingestion, pain avoidance, and versatility to accommodate various drugs. Thus it is preferred over different administration routes of drug delivery . Other ways are also used, such as tropical (10.91%), bathing (5.45%), external (5.45%), paste (4.55%), internal (3.64%), ointment, and anal (1.82%).
Concerning medical uses, Chenopodium ambrosioides is indicated in treating several human diseases, disorders, and injuries of different organs/systems, both in human and veterinary medicines. Veterinary indications are limited compared to humans. Seven signs have been listed for veterinary purposes, mainly including worms (parasites) and gastrointestinal disorders (pain, swelling, diarrhea) in livestock. Also, canine and backyard chickens were explicitly cited.
A subchronic toxicological investigation of leaf aqueous extract for 15 days has not produced mortality in mice. Overall, at the highest dose (500 mg/kg bw, per os), no alteration in body weight, food, and water consumption has been noted, except in some changes in organ weights and biochemical markers like albumin serum, triglycerides, and in the VLDL values . In the oral acute toxicity test for 24 h, 3 g of aqueous leaf extract/kg bw increased transaminase levels and decreased urea serum level in rats. Results did not note any clinical signs of toxicity, macroscopic lesions, and change in total protein, creatinine, triglycerides, and cholesterol levels. On the other hand, in sub-chronic evaluation for 15 days, the extract significantly reduced ALT serum value at the dose of 1 g/kg bw.
Furthermore, the authors suggested congestion in the kidneys’ medullar region at 1 and 3 g/kg bw . Gadano et al.  found that preparations (aqueous decoction and infusion) of the aerial part at different concentrations (1, 10, 100, 1000 mg/ml) could provoke genetic damage by elevation of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges subjected to human lymphocyte cell cultures. A reduction of mitotic indexes appeared after treatment. A similar study concluded a possible strong interaction between DNA and active principles of aqueous extracts .
Table 2 summarizes the compounds isolated and characterized from different extracts, fractions, and plant parts.
Table 3 reports compounds identified in different parts of the plant. Around 330 compounds (including their isomers) have been placed in other extracts/fractions, mainly in essential oil (59.54%). The majority of them were monoterpenes (43.16%) followed by flavonoid glycosides (10.33%), sesquiterpenes (8.51%), esters (5.78%), aliphatic acids and ketones (4.26%), alcohol (3.65%), aliphatic hydrocarbons and aromatic acids (2.43%), carbohydrates (2.13%), and others. For example, essential oils analyzed from four Kenyan plants (ginger, garlic, tick berry, and Mexican marigold), terpenes constituted the highest composition . Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are natural products and essential oils’ main constituents [192, 193]. Alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ethers, ketones, and phenols are made up of the six functional groups of organic compounds necessary to aromatherapists, especially in essential oils’ terpenoid and nonterpenoid volatile compounds (aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons). Terpenes or isoprenoids are the largest single class of compounds found in these essential oils . In the same vein, after monoterpenes, flavonoids glycosides were the majority in the plant (10.33%). Hydroalcoholic extraction (8.33%) and polar fraction obtained from ethanol (8.14%) have been used as the most critical sources of compounds after essential oil, according to Table 2. Flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides are usually extracted in ethanol and hydroalcoholic extracts. Weirong and al . found that the best yield of extraction of the flavonoids from Opuntia milpa alta Skin was obtained with 80% ethanol at the temperature of 90 °C. Overall, aqueous alcohol solutions are suitable for extracting flavonoids .
Among those 329 compounds, terpinene was the most cited (6.76%). Two isomers of terpinene were found, and β-terpinene (3.82%) has been the most cited than α-terpinene (2.94%). However, from 37 studies on chemical composition essential oil of C. ambrosioides, as presented in the above table, α-terpinene was found to be the main constituent (40.5%) of essential oils from different countries include Brazil [197,198,199], Cameroon , China , Colombia , Egypt , India [204,205,206], Morocco , Nigeria , and Rwanda . His concentration was variable according to countries and used parts. His highest concentration was 65.4% from essential leaf oil collected and analyzed from India . The terpinenes, both α- and γ-isomers, are natural cyclic monoterpenes naturally largely spread in the plant kingdom. They have been identified in several species. For example, in tea trees, α-terpinene is a major constituent of the essential oil tree . After terpinene, ascaridole with their three isomers [cis-ascaridole/ascaridole (3.24%), isoascaridole (1.76%), and trans-ascaridole (0.88%)] was also cited (5.88%). From those 37 studies, ascaridole (specifically cis-ascaridole) was also the majority monoterpene (35.13%) in the essential oil of C. ambrosioides. For example, it was the main secondary metabolites in essential oil collected from Argentina [210, 211], Benin , Brazil [213,214,215,216], China [188, 217], France , Hungary , India , Mexico  and Togo . Besides this α-terpinene and ascaridole, we also found in some rare cases carvacrol (5.4%), m-cymene (2.7%), p-cymene (2.7%), o-cymene (2.7%), α-terpinyl acetate (2.7%), limonene (2.7%), cis-piperitone oxide (2.7%), and trans-pinocarveol (2.7%), as main secondary metabolites of essential oil of C. ambrosioides.
Figure 3 shows some most cited chemical structures identified in different studies, including α-pinene, α-terpinene (1), limonene (2), p-cymene (3), carvacrol (4), p-cymen-8-ol (5), p-mentha-1,3,8-triene (6), thymol (7), terpinolene (8), geraniol (9), β-phellandrene (10), β-myrcene (11), pinene (12), camphor (13), ascaridole (14), phytol (15), β-aryophyllene (16), and β-terpinene (17).
Pharmacological potential of crude extracts, fractions, and essential oils
Preclinical studies both in vivo and in vitro of crude extracts and essential oils from different parts of Chenopodium ambrosioides have been highlighted and outlined below: anti-arthritic, acaricidal, amoebicidal, anthelmintic, anticancer, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antidiarrheal, antifertility, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-leishmanial, antimalarial, anti-nociceptive, antipyretic, antioxidant, antisickling, antischistosomal, antiulcer, anxiolytic, bone regeneration, immunomodulatory, insecticidal, molluscicidal, trypanocidal, and vasorelaxant activities have been documented and reported. Overall, a single extract or essential oil could show several activities in different pharmacological models.
It was reported that C. ambrosioides graft through a gel from the lyophilized aqueous extract enhanced precociously bone neoformation in rabbits radius fracture the same way as autogenous bone marrow . Recently, a formulation from chitosan and plant extract (20%) showed a potent effect of bone regeneration in rats through a complete alveolar bone reparation after 30 days’ treatment and bone fractures. It was also noted to improve osteoblastic activity in the treated group . Leaf hydroalcoholic crude extracts significantly (p < 0.01) improved bone density by 34.5% and 34.8% at the knee and heel, respectively. Moreover, the bone architecture appeared completely preserved in collagen-induced arthritis male DBA1/J mice .
Preparations contained 40% and 60% of leaf hydroalcoholic extract showed the best percentage of death (99.7% and 100%) in females Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (cattle tick), respectively . Requiem®EC (Chenopodium-based biopesticide). Previously, Musa et al.  have reported acaricidal and sublethal effects of that formulation on eggs and immatures of spider mite (Tetranychus urticae). A foaming soap was containing his essential oil, at different doses (0.03, 0.06, 0.09, and 0.12 μL of essential oil/g of soap) induced mortality in Rhipicephalus lunulatus, with the best result obtained at the highest dose (96.29% of mortality) on the eighth day .
In vitro and in vivo studies of oral administration of E.O. to hamsters infected with Entamoeba histolytica concluded his efficacy. Trophozoites of parasites exposed to E.O. and metronidazole changed color compared to the control, and E.O. inhibited the growth of serval trophozoites in a dose-dependent manner .
Leaf crude aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts, at the concentration of 0.5 mg/ml, inhibited 100% of egg hatching of Haemonchus contortus. However, the aqueous extract produced significant mortality in adult parasites, dose-dependently . However, E.O. (0.2 ml of oil/kg bw) after 7 days of post-treatment was not effective in terms of reduction of parasite burden both to adults and kids goats with natural mixed-nematode (Haemonchus contortus) infections . A nematicidal evaluation in vitro of different concentrations (0.6, 1.25, 2.50, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/ml) of aerial part hexane extract on gerbils three months of age (experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus L3), for 24 h and 72 h post confrontation, exhibited exciting activity. Therefore, at concentrations of 20 and 40 mg/ml, it showed lethal activity of 92.8% and 96.3%, respectively. Furthermore, the authors noted a decrease of 27.1% of the parasitic burden .
From MIC of 4.29 to 34.37 mg/ml, leaf ethyl acetate fraction inhibited several strains, which showed effectiveness against Enterococcus faecalis, Paenibacillus apiarus, Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus (They exhibited the lowest values of MIC). However, chloroform fraction was the most active against Mycobacterium species include M. avium (MIC = 625 μg/ml) and M. smegmatis (MIC= 156.25 μg/ml ). Oliveira-Tintino et al.  obtained essential oil from C. ambrosioides, and α-terpinene has potentialized norfloxacin and ethidium bromide against it Staphylococcus aureus by significative reduction of their MIC through inhibition of efflux pumps. These results are under a previous study where the essential oil significantly decreased MIC of tetracycline and ethidium bromide against the same strain and the exact mechanism . The fruit methanol extract showed antibacterial potential against three strains, including Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium with MIC values (μg/ml) of 4375, 1094, and 137, respectively. As a standard drug, Chloramphenicol produced the best effect MIC values against those strains (MIC = 6 μg/ml ). Hydroethanolic leaf extract showed a weak antimycobacterial activity on Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra with a MIC of 5,000 μg/ml. However, the leaf extract of Solanum torvum showed the best effect (MIC= 156.3 μg/ml ). However, a previous study from South Africa confirmed the antibacterial activity of the acetone extract against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In fact, with a MIC value of 0.1 mg/ml . Essential oils inhibited Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) growth and Gram-negative bacteria . Pharmacological screening of medicinal plants from South African used against common skin pathogens reported the efficacy of dichloromethane-methanol extract on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Brevibacillus agri, Propionibacterium acnes, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes with MIC values of 0.80, 0.50, 0.25, 0.50, 0.40, and 0.25 mg/ml respectively. These MIC values were close to those obtained from standards drugs, including methicin and gentamycin resistants to Staphylococcus aureus (0.25 and 0.50 mg/ml ).
Leaf hydroalcoholic extract (5 mg/kg) inhibited the development of ascitic and solid tumor Ehrlich tumors in Swiss mice, on cells implanted on the left footpad, and in the peritoneal cavity. It also extended the life expectancy of tumor-bearing mice . Furthermore, Cruz et al.  reported his antitumor effect on macrophage and lymphoid organ cellularity models by increasing nitric oxide production and the number of cells in the peritoneal cavity spleen and lymph node. Also, the activity of the macrophages increased. Leaf and fruit methanol extract produced contradictory results than other plant extracts on the enterocyte cell line Caco-2 demonstrated. Thus, fruit extract was the most cytotoxic with CC50= 45 ± 7 μg/ml; however, leaf extract was the least cytotoxic with IC50 = 563 ± 66 μg/ml . However, essential oils from the ethanol extract exhibited a potent anticancer property on RAJI cells. That effect was similar to that obtained with doxorubicin (as a standard) with IC50 of 1 mg/ml and 13.2 mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the fractions extracted effectively affected myeloid leukemia cells compared to positive control with 34 and 47 mg/ml values, respectively . EO showed antitumor properties on human liver cancer SMMC-7721 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation, stopping cell division in the Go/G1 phase, and inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis .
Crude leaves extract (100–300 mg/kg bw) significantly reduced blood glucose levels in low-dose STZ-treated and high-fat diet-fed mice after 2 weeks of treatment . At a 20 μg/ml concentration, root hexane extract showed an antidiabetic potential by the high level of α-amylase inhibition (50.24 ± 0.9% ).
The percentage of 43.4 ± 6.5 and 48.7 ± 11.6, respectively, methanolic and aqueous extracts (300 mg/kg) from the aerial parts (green variety) showed suitable antisecretory property on intestinal secretion response in the rat jejunal loops model. That effect was better than that obtained from loperamide, as a standard drug (43.3 ± 13.1%) . Previously, a similar study of the methanol extract from aerial parts at the same concentration showed an inhibition rate of 40.4 ± 1.0% on charcoal–gum acacia-induced hyperperistalsis in rats. That effect was also better than that obtained from loperamide as a standard drug, with a percentage of inhibition of 34.0 ± 3.7 .
EO showed high contact toxicity against the DBM, Plutella xylostella. His fumigant toxicity was more pronounced to the second-instar than third- and fourth-instar larvae. Either contact or fumigant toxicities, EO showed the best results compared to α-terpinene and p-cymene .
The leaf methanolic extract produced an antifertility effect temporally in male rats (but reversible). It was mainly observed weak spermatozoa in a vaginal smear in female rats and reduced pups born after 60 days of treatment, dose-dependently. Thus, females’ fertility rate was 83%, 66%, and 50%, respectively, in groups treated with 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of plant extracts. After the cessation of treatment, the hormonal status becomes normal in male rats .
At the concentration of 0.1%, essential of from leaf methanol extract inhibited in range of 90 and 100% Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus glaucus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceous, Colletotrichum gloespor- ioides, Colletotrichum musae, and Fusarium semitectum . It also exhibited the highest antifungal effect on Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides compared to essential oils Zanthoxylum armatum and Juniperus communis. It inhibited growth zones at 80 and 160 μg/spot, from 6.5 to 8.0 mm and 11.0 to 14.5 mm. At the dose of 160 μg/spot, that effect on all three fungal species was closed to that produced by the reference (captan ). At the concentration of 500 μg/ml, EO inhibited all two aflatoxigenic strains of A. flavus and the production of aflatoxin B1 production at 10 μg/ml . In the same way, EO was toxic and inhibited the mycelial growth of all fungi, including Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, and A. terreus. His fungitoxicity was more effective than those obtained from aluminum phosphide and ethylene dibromide, taken as standards fumigants . Previously, after 72 h of exposition, 176.5 μl EO/l has inhibited at 97.3% (mycelial inhibition) Fusarium oxysporum . At the concentration of 200 μg/ml, leaf hexane extract inhibited the complete growth of Candida kruse . Moreover, with GM-MIC = 7.82 μg/ml, EO demonstrated a strong effect against C. krusei . However, the EO from aerial parts has been sensible on Candida glabrata and C. guilliermondi . Brahim et al.  demonstrated a complete synergic action of EO’s combination from aerial parts with conventional drugs, especially fluconazole against microbial strains like Candida parapsilosis C. krusei and C. glabrata. The MIC of fluconazole was decreased by 8–16-fold. On the other hand, leaf, stem, root, and inflorescence methanol extracts showed a significant effect against Macrophomina phaseolina, with the best result obtained from leaf extract .
Leaf hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from maceration and percolation produced attractive in vitro activity against Giardia lamblia trophozoites with the IC50 of 214.16 ± 5.02 and 198.18 ± 4.28 μg/ml, respectively .
Leaf and stem ethanol extract (300 and 500 mg/kg bw) significantly inhibited paw edema and edema induced by carrageenan (56%), prostaglandin-E2 (55%), bradykinin (62%), and BK (60%) in mice . Leaf crude hydroalcoholic extract produced anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties in the chronicity of osteoarthritis conditions. In fact, after the tenth day of treatment with different doses of the section, it was observed a decrease of knee edema, intensities of allodynia, synovial inflammation, and other symptoms related to pain . Inhalation of ethanolic extract (nebulized extract) improved lung inflammation by modulating the pulmonary inflammatory response induced following the ischemia-reperfusion method of the mesenteric artery in rats . Topical treatment of leaf and stem ethanol extracts enhanced the cutaneous wound healing caused by wound-induced experimentally in mice. Overall, the extracts repaired tissue, and improved lesion size on days 7, 14, and 19 after injury induction, recovering from the injured area .
In vitro study of EO against both Leishmania amazonensis and L. donovani showed complete inhibition of growth of promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. Otherwise, in vivo investigation, in BALB/c mice infected with L. amazonensis, 30 mg/Kg of EO notably decreased the size of the lesions caused by the disease . Besides, in this condition, EO prevented lesion development of parasite burden compared to pure compounds including ascaridole, carvacrol, and caryophyllene oxide for 14 days of evaluation. Moreover, statistically, EO was more effective than a standard drug (glucantime) . Aqueous extract from the aerial part (100 μg/ml) exhibited a growth inhibition by 87.4% of Leishmania amazonensis collected from patients .
After 3 days of treatment, leaf crude hydroalcoholic extract (5 mg/kg/day) extended the life expectancy of BALB/c mice infected with Plasmodium berghei at the end of the 21st-day evaluation. Furthermore, the extract enhanced the parasitemia evaluated by flow cytometry 3 days after infection. On the other hand, plant extract significantly (1.9- to 4.3-fold) interacted with total proteins of erythrocytes infected by P. falciparum, compared to a standard drug (chloroquine). Moreover, at the dose of 25.4 μg/ml (LC50), plant extract completely prevented Plasmodium falciparum’s growth .
The results demonstrated that the oral administration of the extract at the dose of 500 mg/kg bw inhibited at 77.39% of neurogenic and 95.06% degrees of inflammation in Algogen-induced nociception male Swiss mice by administering prostaglandin-E2, formalin, capsaicin, and bradykinin. Furthermore, phlogistic substances produced nociceptive responses that were significantly improved 68%, 53%, and 32%, respectively, for prostaglandin-E2, capsaicin, and bradykinin. However, the inhibition of pain induced by the extract’s formalin response was comparable to that obtained by indomethacin, taken as standard . Crude alkaloid extract showed a protective effect against writhings induced by acetic acid in mice .
At the dose of 40 mg/kg, aqueous bark extract showed a significant (p < 0.0001) antipyretic effect by reduction of body temperature in mice from 36.3 to 31.0 °C .
Leaf aqueous crude extract at a 250 μg/ml concentration showed the highest superoxide scavenging radicals and hydroxyl properties with the maximum percentage at 44.35% (more remarkable than that produced by BHA 37.46%) and 51.80% (against 54.23% obtained by BHT), respectively. Furthermore, at the same concentration, intracellular ROS, SOD, nitric oxide production, and CAT concentrations were significantly higher in splenocytes than in control . Aqueous infusion and ethanolic extract showed a protective effect against lipid oxidation from raw pork meat and their products by reducing significantly (p < 0.05) compared to control values . Essential oils from leaf extract produced the antioxidant effect by capturing the DPPH radical . On the other hand, C. ambrosioides elevated antioxidant enzyme activities in response to Cu-toxicity .
1.0 and 0.1 mg/ml of the root, leaf, and bark aqueous and methanol extracts exhibited a significant (p < 0.05) anti-sickling effect by inhibiting sodium metabisulphite-induced sickling of HbSS erythrocytes. The best percentage of inhibition (64%) was obtained after 30 min of incubation in aqueous and methanol extract at 0.1 mg/ml. The high dose (10.0 mg/ml) provoked erythrocytes’ lysis .
A treatment (methanol extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides, Sesbania sesban, and mefloquine) of Schistosoma mansoni in infected male Swiss Albino mice 3 weeks after infection significantly decreased worm burden around 95.5% and overall enhanced biochemical markers after sacrifice . However, oral administration of methanol extract (1250 mg/kg/day) for 7 days after infection of Schistosoma mansoni in mice reduced to 53.7% (10 against 22.3 worms) the rates of worm load/mouse. On the other hand, biochemical and parasitological parameters such as serum total protein, and albumin values, and activities of AlT, AsT, AkP, and AcP were improved in animals . In vitro EO from leaves (25 and 12.5 μg/ml) demonstrated a notable schistosomicidal effect producing 100% of mortality of adult Schistosoma mansoni within 24 and 72 h .
In Helicobacter pylori-infected mice, volatile oil (49.32 mg/kg daily) showed an excellent eradication rate which was comparable to that produced by references such as lansoprazole (12.33 mg/kg), metronidazole (164.40 mg/kg), and clarithromycin (205.54 mg/kg). Their eradication rations through rapid urease tests were closer and represented 60% and 70% for the experimental group and reference groups, respectively. Histological investigation of gastric scores indicated no notable change (inflammation) in the experimental group. On the other hand, in vitro study showed no bacterial growth after an incubation period of 12 h at the dose of 16 mg/l (MIC value against H. pylori ).
Bark aqueous extract (120 mg/kg bw) significant (p < 0.0001) elevated the percentages of entries into open arms (51%) and of time spent in open arms (31.8%) in the Elevated Plus Maze model. Furthermore, like diazepam, plant extract significantly (p < 0.0001) decreased in the percentage of entries (48.9%) and time (24.7%) in closed arms. Moreover, in the stress-induced hyperthermia test in mice, the same plant concentration reduced temperature at 1.1 °C, a value close to that obtained by phenobarbital .
Rodrigues et al.  found leaf hydroalcoholic extract recently elevated the number of B lymphocytes and splenocytes during the young worms and the pulmonary phases in Swiss mice infected with 50 cercariae Schistosoma mansoni after 60 days post-infection. Furthermore, it also increased the total number of macrophages, peritoneal cells, and neutrophils during the adult worm phase. The number of macrophages remained unchanged. However, during the cutaneous, lung, young worm, and adult worm phases, the extract reduced cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, and the liver area granulomas.
Leaf powder (200 g per 100 kg beans) applied on Acanthoscelides obtectus, and Zabrotes subfasciatus inhibited their growth totally . Leaf ethanolic extraction at a concentration of 5% reduced the number of adult Bemisia tabaci 72 h after application by spraying . After 14 days of exposure, aerial parts powder (5 g/kg) caused 100% mortality in adults, Trogoderma granarium, and Tribolium castaneum . Insecticidal investigation from EO collected in Egypt showed an attractive potential against Culex pipiens larvae with a low EC50 value of 0.750 ppm . Administrated alone, the essential oil from leaf extract of C. ambrosioides has shown high toxicity to darkling beetle Alphitobius diaperinus adults after 24 h of exposure, compared to a standard insecticide (cypermethrin). His effectiveness was 50 times more than that of cypermethrin. Moreover, their combination at 11.79 μg/cm2 showed high inhibition of Alphitobius diaperinus with LC50 of 603.36 μg/cm2 . Furthermore, ethanol extract at a concentration of 6% significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) Bemisia tabaci, a pest of many crops (93%) . Bossou et al.  found that after 24 h of exposition, essential oil from leafy stem exhibited inhibition on A. arabiensis (LC50= 17.5 ppm and LC90= 33.2 ppm) and A. aegypti (LC50 = 9.1 ppm and LC90 = 14.3 ppm).
The lowest concentration of hexane extract from the aerial produced a strong molluscicidal effect against Bulinus truncates (LC50 = 1.41 and LC90= 2.23 mg/l) .
Leaf aqueous, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts showed a relaxant effect on thoracic aortic rings isolated from Wistar rats inhibiting vasoconstriction induced by phenylephrine, dose-dependently manner. Methanol extract appeared most potent at the dose of 1 mg/ml, producing 68.7 ± 8.9% of relaxation . At the concentration of 1000 μg/ml, EO from leaves, the tracheal smooth muscle isolated from rats was wholly relaxed due to a contraction caused by potassium, acetylcholine, serotonin, and barium in the presence of a high potassium concentration .
Results obtained by Soares et al.  showed that leaf ethanolic extract induced an attractive repellence index (66%) against Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) when applied in high concentrations (2.200 mg/cm2). The concentration of 10 μl/ml, EO exhibited 100% mortality of pulse bruchids Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus of stored pigeon pea seeds .
The leaf dichloromethane extract showed remarkable activity (IC50 = 17.1 μg/ml) against Trypanosoma brucei brucei among 30 Ethiopian medicinal plants .
Bioactivity of the isolated compounds
Table 4 shows that the antioxidant effect was among the most pharmacological investigated tools of compounds isolated from C. ambrosioides. Most of them were focused on flavonoids, including their glycosides (75%, 3 of 4 studies). The best described pharmacological potential of flavonoids and their glycosides is their antioxidant capacity, depending on functional groups’ arrangement about the nuclear structure. There are three main antioxidant mechanisms of action: upregulation or protection of antioxidant defenses, scavenging of reactive oxygen species, and suppressing their formation through both enzyme inhibition and chelation of trace elements involved in a free radical generation . By the way, other compounds isolated from the plant showed several activities include antioxidant, trypanocidal, analgesic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antihypertensive, antimalarial, cytotoxic, myorelaxant, and sedative. α-terpinene isolated from different plants (Umbelliferae labiatae, Ferula hermonis, Acinos rotundifolius, Hyssopus cuspidatus, and Salvia officinalis) showed antimicrobial activities against so many strains . Kaempferol and its glycosides have demonstrated an antihypertensive potential in most cases. For example, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnoside has shown antihypertensive effect in both standard and hypertensive rats prolonged diuretic effect by decreasing Ca2+ (through his elimination) and increasing of urinary excretion of Cl− and Na+ .
On the other hand, scutellarein synthesized from scutellarin produced in vivo a more substantial antioxidant effect by scavenging capacities toward DPPH, •O.H., ABTS+•, free radicals . Caryophyllene oxide has shown anticancer property MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells via various mechanisms . Moreover, Fidyt et al.  supported the cytotoxicity of β-caryophyllene oxide, characterized from different plant resources, on cancer cell lines (human cervical adenocarcinoma, ovarian, lung, gastric, stomach, and leukemia cancer cells). p-cymene extracted from the essential oil of Origanum acutidens presented lower antifungal activity on the mycelial growth of various phytopathogenic fungi .
Insecticidal and antioxidant evaluations were the main pharmacological properties of the compounds isolated from different parts of Chenopodium ambrosioides. The main class of secondary metabolites is represented by monoterpenes, the most represented phytochemical found in Tables 2 and 3. Monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are secondary metabolites of essential oils, which possess significant biological functions among repellant potential . Among natural compounds involved in chemical defense against insects, terpenoids appeared to have a significant insecticidal potential  which produce different mechanisms, by attracting pollinators or by deterring herbivores, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes play a vital role in the relations between organisms on one side and their environment on the other side . Monoterpenes isolated from C. ambrosioides (Ascaridole, isoascaridole, and p-cymene) have shown significant bioactivities, particularly insecticidal against adults Blattella germanica and Sitophilus zeamais [188, 217].
A clinical investigation in 72 patients examined for parasitic intestinal infections, after 8 days of treatment, the plant extract inhibited Ancylostoma duodenale and Trichuris trichiura completely, against 50 Ascaris lumbricoides . Similarly, a clinical trial study in Peru on efficacy comparison between a C. ambrosioides juice and Albendazole for 15 days of treatment in 60 children concluded reducing Ascaris lumbricoides burden and complete disappearance of Ascaris eggs in feces. That juice produced the best eradication rate of parasites than albendazole, 59.5%, and 58.3%, respectively. Moreover, it was also 100% effective against Hymenolepsis nana .
Leaves, stems, and roots collected in Nigeria showed macronutrients such as K, Na, and Mg. Other minerals that have been quantified include Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, and Cu. Beyond ash, moisture, crude fat, and carbohydrates, amino acids like leucine, isoleucine, methionine, cysteine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, threonine, and valine have been identified and quantified in leaves, stems, and roots . Barros et al.  found free sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and organic acids (oxalic, quinic, malic, ascorbic, citric, and fumaric acids) in methanolic extract. Fructose was the most represented, with a ratio of 74.4% of total sugars. Furthermore, up to 26 fatty acids (including cis-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid; arachidonic acid; cis-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid; and cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid) and tocopherols (α, β, ɤ, and δ-tocopherols) have been also quantified. Polyunsaturated were predominant than monounsaturated fatty acids. Among polyunsaturated fatty acids, α-linolenic (48.54%) and linoleic (19.23%) were a majority. In contrast, α-tocopherol represented 98.52% of total tocopherols. A few amino acids have been identified in leaves and aerial parts of ethanol extract and scarcely essential oil. These amino acids are β-and l-alanine, asparagine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tyrosine, valine .
Research concerning medicinal herbs’ multiple properties in different areas includes Phytomedicine use, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology, are summarized. These researches arouse more and more interest. Scientific investigations of Chenopodium ambrosioides have proved their importance in those areas. Different parts of the plant possess potential as a possible source of interesting bioactive compounds likely to treat several human and animal diseases. Further investigations are necessary to promote this plant due to its possibilities therapeutically exploitable. Future research needs to establish a relationship between phytochemical composition, pharmacological and toxicological aspects and investigate deeply and strictly controlled clinical studies for users’ safety and efficacy.
Availability of data and materials
All data and materials are available on request.
- ABTS+• :
2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) cation radical
Acyl carrier protein
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
- CC50 :
The 50% cytotoxic concentration
Diamond-Blackfan anemia 1
- EC50 :
Half maximal effective concentration
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains
- HaCaT cell line:
Spontaneously immortalized human keratinocyte line
Human immunodeficiency virus
- IC50 :
Inhibitory concentration 50%
- LC90 :
Inhibitory concentration 90%
Human osteosarcoma cell line
Minimal inhibitory concentration
Human B lymphoblastoid cell line
Reactive oxygen species
- SC50 :
Concentration required to inhibit 50% of the free radical-scavenging activity
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
World Health Organization
Soner BC, Sahin AS, Sahin TK (2013) A survey of Turkish hospital patients’ use of herbal medicine. Eur J Integr Med 5:547–552
Süntar I, Nabavi SM, Berreca D, Fischer N, Efferth T (2018) Pharmacological and chemical features of Nepeta L. genus: its importance as a therapeutic agent. Phytother Res 32:185–198
Cardona MI, Toro RM, Costa GM, Ospina LF, Castellanos L, Ramos FA, Aragón DM (2017) Influence of extraction process on antioxidant activity and rutin content in Physalis peruviana calyces extract. J Appl Pharm Sci 7:164–168
Farnsworth NR, Akerele O, Bingel AS, Soejarto DD, Guo Z (1985) Medicinal plants in therapy. Bull World Health Organ 63:965–981
Canter PH, Thomas H, Ernst E (2005) Bringing medicinal plants into cultivation: opportunities and challenges for biotechnology. Trends Biotechnol 23:180–185
World Health Organization (2008) Traditional medicine. Fact sheet N°134, vol 2013, pp 1–4
Nowak R, Szewczyk K, Gawlik-Dziki U, Rzymowska J, Komsta Ł (2016) Antioxidative and cytotoxic potential of some Chenopodium L. species growing in Poland. Saudi J Biol Sci 23:15–23
Sá RD, Santana ASCO, Silva FCL, Soaresa LAL, Randaua KP (2016) Anatomical and histochemical analysis of Dysphania ambrosioides supported by light and electron microscopy. Brazilian J Pharmacogn 26:533–543
Kuete V (2014) Physical, hematological, and histopathological signs of toxicity induced by African medicinal plants. In: Toxicological survey of African medicinal plants. Elsevier. pp. 635–657. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-800018-2.00022-4.
Da Silva SB, Barbosa JR, da Silva Martins LH, Rai M, Lopes AS (2021) Traditional uses, phytochemicals and pharmacological properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Dysphania ambrosioides) L. Mosyakin & Clemants. In: Ethnopharmacology of wild plants, pp 234–245
Gracius Hewis L, Batista Christian Daeli G, Tanoto K, Anania Triavika Sahamastuti A (2020) A review of botany, phytochemical, and pharmacological effects of Dysphania ambrosioides. Indones J Life Sci 02:70–82
Ouadja B, Katawa G, Gbekley EH, Ameyapoh Y, Karou SD (2020) Popular use, phytochemical composition and biological activities of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae ). Int J Sci Eng Res 11:552–564
Gbolade AA, Tira-Picos V, Nogueria JM (2010) Chemical constituents of Chenopodium ambrosioides var. anthelminticum herb essential oil from Nigeria. Chem Nat Compd 46:654–655
Göhre A, Toto-Nienguesse ÁB, Futuro M, Neinhuis C, Lautenschläger T (2016) Plants from disturbed savannah vegetation and their usage by Bakongo tribes in Uíge, Northern Angola. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-016-0116-9
Kujawska M, Hilgert NI (2014) Phytotherapy of polish migrants in Misiones, Argentina: legacy and acquired plant species. J Ethnopharmacol 153:810–830
Martínez GJ, Barboza GE (2010) Natural pharmacopoeia used in traditional Toba medicine for the treatment of parasitosis and skin disorders (Central Chaco, Argentina). J Ethnopharmacol 132:86–100
Estomba D, Ladio A, Lozada M (2006) Medicinal wild plant knowledge and gathering patterns in a Mapuche community from North-western Patagonia. J Ethnopharmacol 103:109–119
Goleniowski ME, Bongiovanni GA, Palacio L, Nuñez CO, Cantero JJ (2006) Medicinal plants from the “Sierra de Comechingones”, Argentina. J Ethnopharmacol 107:324–341
Mollik MAH, Hossan MSH, Paul AK, Taufiq-Ur-Rahman M, Jahan R, Rahmatullah M (2010) A comparative analysis of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal healers in three districts of Bangladesh and inquiry as to mode of selection of medicinal plants. Ethnobot Res Appl 8:195–218
Yemoa AL, Gbenou JD, Johnson RC, Djego JG, Zinsou C, Moudachirou M, Quetin-Leclercq J, Bigot A, Portaels F (2008) Identification et étude phytochimique de plantes utilisées dans le traitement traditionnel de l’ulcère de Buruli au Bénin. Ethnopharmacologia 42:48–55
Yetein MH, Houessou LG, Lougbégnon TO, Teka O, Tente B (2013) Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria in plateau of Allada, Benin (West Africa). J Ethnopharmacol 146:154–163
Hajdu Z, Hohmann J (2012) An ethnopharmacological survey of the traditional medicine utilized in the community of Porvenir, Bajo Paraguá Indian Reservation, Bolivia. J Ethnopharmacol 139:838–857
Quiroga R, Meneses L, Bussmann RW (2012) Medicinal ethnobotany in Huacareta (Chuquisaca, Bolivia). J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-8-29
Macía MJ, García E, Vidaurre PJ (2005) An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants commercialized in the markets of la Paz and El Alto, Bolivia. J Ethnopharmacol 97:337–350
Bourdy G, DeWalt SJ, Chávez De Michel LR, Roca A, Deharo E, Muñoz V, Balderrama L, Quenevo C, Gimenez A (2000) Medicinal plants uses of the Tacana, an Amazonian Bolivian ethnic group. J Ethnopharmacol 70:87–109
Fernandez EC, Sandi YE, Kokoska L (2003) Ethnobotanical inventory of medicinal plants used in the Bustillo Province of the Potosi Department, Bolivia. Fitoterapia 74:407–416
Cussy-Poma V, Fernández E, Rondevaldova J, Foffová H, Russo D (2017) Ethnobotanical inventory of medicinal plants used in the Qampaya district, Bolivia. Bol Latinoam y del Caribe Plantas Med y Aromat 16:68–77
Vieira DRP, Amaral FMM, Maciel MCG, Nascimento FRF, Libério SA, Rodrigues VP (2014) Plant species used in dental diseases: ethnopharmacology aspects and antimicrobial activity evaluation. J Ethnopharmacol 155:1441–1449
Tribess B, Pintarelli GM, Bini LA, Camargo A, Funez LA, De Gasper AL, Zeni ALB (2015) Ethnobotanical study of plants used for therapeutic purposes in the Atlantic Forest region, Southern Brazil. J Ethnopharmacol 164:136–146
Yazbek PB, Matta P, Passero LF, Santos GD, Braga S, Assunção L, Sauini T, Cassas F, Garcia RJF, Honda S, Barreto EHP, Rodrigues E (2019) Plants utilized as medicines by residents of Quilombo da Fazenda, Núcleo Picinguaba, Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil: a participatory survey. J Ethnopharmacol 244:112–123
Bolson M, Hefler SR, Dall’Oglio Chaves EI, Gasparotto Junior A, Cardozo Junior EL (2015) Ethno-medicinal study of plants used for treatment of human ailments, with residents of the surrounding region of forest fragments of Paraná, Brazil. J Ethnopharmacol 161:1–10
da Silva LE, de Quadros DA, Maria Neto AJ (2015) Estudo etnobotânico e etnofarmacológico de plantas medicinais utilizadas na região de Matinhos - Pr. Ciência e Nat 37:266–276
Albertasse PD, Thomaz LD, Andrade MA (2010) Plantas medicinais e seus usos na comunidade da Barra do Jucu, Vila Velha, ES. Rev Bras Plantas Med 12:250–260
de Oliveira HB, Kffuri CW, Casali VWD (2010) Ethnopharmacological study of medicinal plants used in Rosário da Limeira, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Rev Bras 20:256–260
Cavalheiro L, Guarim-Neto G (2018) Ethnobotany and regional knowledge: combining popular knowledge with the biotechnological potential of plants in the Aldeia Velha community, Chapada dos guimarães, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Bol Latinoam y del Caribe Plantas Med y Aromat 17:197–216
Ribeiro RV, Bieski IGC, Balogun SO, Martins DT (2017) Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Ribeirinhos in the North Araguaia microregion, Mato Grosso, Brazil. J Ethnopharmacol 205:69–102
Frausin G, Ari DFH, Lima RBS, Kinupp VF, Ming LC, Pohlit AM, Milliken W (2015) An ethnobotanical study of anti-malarial plants among indigenous people on the upper Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon. J Ethnopharmacol 174:238–252
Agra MDF, Silva KN, Basílio IJLD, De Freitas PF, Barbosa-Filho JM (2008) Survey of medicinal plants used in the region Northeast of Brazil. Brazilian J Pharmacogn 18:472–508
Magalhães KN, Guarniz WA, Sá KM, Freire AB, Monteiro MP, Nojosa RT, Bieski IG, Custódio JB, Balogun SO, Bandeira MA (2019) Medicinal plants of the Caatinga, northeastern Brazil: Ethnopharmacopeia (1980–1990) of the late professor Francisco José de Abreu Matos. J Ethnopharmacol 237:314–353
Lemos ICS, De Araújo DG, Ferreira Dos Santos AD, Santos ES, De Oliveira DR, De Figueiredo PRL, De Araújo AD, Barbosa R, De Menezes IRA, Coutinho HD, Kerntop MR, Fernandes GP (2016) Ethnobiological survey of plants and animals used for the treatment of acute respiratory infections in children of a traditional community in the municipality of barbalha, cearÁ, Brazil. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 13:166–175
Pedrollo CT, Kinupp VF, Shepard G, Heinrich M (2016) Medicinal plants at Rio Jauaperi, Brazilian Amazon: ethnobotanical survey and environmental conservation. J Ethnopharmacol 186:111–124
Penido AB, de Morais SM, Ribeiro AB, Silva AZ (2016) Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Imperatriz, State of Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. Acta Amaz 46:345–354
Caetano NLB, Ferreira TF, Reis MRO, Neo GGA, Carvalho AA (2015) Plantas medicinais utilizadas pela população do município de Lagarto-SE, Brasil-Ênfase em pacientes oncológicos. Rev Bras Plantas Med 17:748–756
Silva FDS, Albuquerque UP, Costa Júnior LM, Lima ADS, Nascimento AL, Monteiro JM (2014) An ethnopharmacological assessment of the use of plants against parasitic diseases in humans and animals. J Ethnopharmacol 155:1332–1341
Oliveira GL, Oliveira AFM, Andrade L de HC (2015) Medicinal and toxic plants from Muribeca Alternative Health Center (Pernambuco, Brazil): an ethnopharmacology survey. Bol Latinoam y del Caribe Plantas Med y Aromat 14:470–483.
Neiva VA, Ribeiro MN, Nascimento FR, Cartágenes MS, Coutinho-Moraes DF, do Amaral FM (2014) Plant species used in giardiasis treatment: ethnopharmacology and in vitro evaluation of anti-Giardia activity. Brazilian J Pharmacogn 24:215–224
Vásquez SPF, de Mendonça MS, Noda SN (2014) Etnobotânica de plantas medicinais em comunidades ribeirinhas do município de Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brasil. Acta Amaz 44:457–472
Ritter RA, Monteiro MVB, Monteiro FOB, Rodrigues ST, Soares ML, Silva JCR, Palha MDDC, Biondi GF, Rahal SC, Tourinho MM (2012) Ethnoveterinary knowledge and practices at Colares island, Pará state, eastern Amazon, Brazil. J Ethnopharmacol 144:346–352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.09.018
Monteiro MVB, Bevilaqua CML, Palha MD, Braga RR, Schwanke K, Rodrigues ST, Lameira OA (2011) Ethnoveterinary knowledge of the inhabitants of Marajó Island, Eastern Amazonia, Brazil. Acta Amaz 41:233–242
Cartaxo SL, de Almeida Souza MM, de Albuquerque UP (2010) Medicinal plants with bioprospecting potential used in semi-arid northeastern Brazil. J Ethnopharmacol 131:326–342
Coelho-Ferreira M (2009) Medicinal knowledge and plant utilization in an Amazonian coastal community of Marudá, Pará State (Brazil). J Ethnopharmacol 126:159–175
de Albuquerque UP, Monteiro JM, Ramos MA, de Amorim ELC (2007) Medicinal and magic plants from a public market in northeastern Brazil. J Ethnopharmacol 110:76–91
Franca F, Lago EL, Marsden PD (1996) Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 29:229–232
De Albuquerque UPD (2001) The use of medicinal plants by the cultural descendants of African people in Brazil. Acta Farm Bonaer 20:139–144
Garcia D, Domingues MV, Rodrigues E (2010) Ethnopharmacological survey among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest of Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 6. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-6-29
da Costa IBC, Bonfim FPG, Pasa MC, Montero DAV (2017) Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal flora in the rural community Rio dos Couros, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Bol Latinoam y del Caribe Plantas Med y Aromat 16:53–67
Leitão F, Leitão SG, De Almeida MZ, Cantos J, Coelho T, Da Silva PEA (2013) Medicinal plants from open-air markets in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil as a potential source of new antimycobacterial agents. J Ethnopharmacol 149:513–521
Conde BE, de Siqueira AM, Rogério ITS, Marques JS, Borcard GG, Ferreira MQ, Chedier LM, Pimenta DS (2014) Synergy in ethnopharmacological data collection methods employed for communities adjacent to urban forest. Brazilian J Pharmacogn 24:425–432
Noumi E, Yomi A (2001) Medicinal plants used for intestinal diseases in Mbalmayo Region, Central Province, Cameroon. Fitoterapia 72:246–254
Telefo PB, Lienou LL, Yemele MD, Lemfack MC, Mouokeu C, Goka CS, Tagne SR, Moundipa FP (2011) Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used for the treatment of female infertility in Baham, Cameroon. J Ethnopharmacol 136:178–187
Noumi E, Houngue F, Lontsi D (1999) Traditional medicines in primary health care: plants used for the treatment of hypertension in Bafia, Cameroon. Fitoterapia 70:134–139
Vásquez J, Alarcón JC, Jiménez SL, Jaramillo GI, Gómez-Betancur IC, Rey-Suárez JP, Jaramillo KM, Muñoz DC, Marín DM, Romero JO (2015) Main plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of snake bites n the regions of the department of Antioquia, Colombia. J Ethnopharmacol 170:158–166
Duque M, Gómez CM, Cabrera JA, Guzmán JD (2018) Important medicinal plants from traditional ecological knowledge: the case La Rosita community of Puerto Colombia (Atlántico, Colombia). Bol Latinoam y del Caribe Plantas Med y Aromat 17:324–341
Bassoueka DJ, Loufoua BAE, Etou-Ossibi AW, Nsondé-Ntandou GF, Ondelé R, Elion-Itou RDG, Ouamba JM, Abena AA (2015) Plantes anticonvulsivantes du Congo, approche ethnobotanique. Phytotherapie 13:298–305
Loufoua BAE, Bassoueka DJ, Nsonde Ntandou GF, Nzonzi J, Etou-Ossibi AW, Ouamba JM, Abena AA (2015) Étude ethnobotanique, pharmacologique et phytochimique de quelques plantes médicinales congolaises à potentialité antitussive. Phytotherapie 13:377–383
Moswa JL, Ciamala C, Bongombola B, Nzingula N, Kapanda N, Bokatshinde N, Bunga M (2005) Plants used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ann Pharmacother 3:87–93
Okombe Embeya V, Lumbu Simbi JB, Stévigny C, Vandenput S, Pongombo Shongo C, Duez P (2014) Traditional plant-based remedies to control gastrointestinal disorders in livestock in the regions of Kamina and Kaniama (Katanga province, Democratic Republic of Congo). J Ethnopharmacol 153:686–693
Manya MH, Keymeulen F, Ngezahayo J, Bakari AS, Kalonda ME, Kahumba BJ, Duez P, Stévigny C, Lumbu SJB (2020) Antimalarial herbal remedies of Bukavu and Uvira areas in DR Congo: an ethnobotanical survey. J Ethnopharmacol 249:112422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.112422
Ngbolua K, Mpiana P, Mudogo V, Ngombe N, Tshibangu D, Ekutsu E, Kabena O, Gbolo B, Muanyishay C (2014) Ethno-pharmacological survey and floristic study of some medicinal plants traditionally used to treat infectious and parasitic pathologies in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Int J Med Plants Phot 106:427–432
Masunda AT, Inkoto CL, Bongo GN, Oloko JDO, Ngbolua K-T-N, Tshibangu DST, Tshilanda DD, Mpiana PT (2019) Ethnobotanical and ecological studies of plants used in the treatment of diabetes in Kwango, Kongo central and Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Int J Diabetes Endocrinol 9:18–25
Ngbolua K, Mandjo BL, Munsebi JM, Ashande MC, Moke LE, Asamboa LS, Konda RK, Dianzuangani DL, Ilumbe M, Nzudjom AB, Mukebayi K, Mpiana PT (2016) Etudes ethnobotanique et écologique des plantes utilisées en médecine traditionnelle dans le district de la Lukunga à Kinshasa (RD du Congo). Int J Innov Sci Res 26:612–633
El-Seedi HR, Burman R, Mansour A, Turki Z, Boulos L, Gullbo J, Göransson U (2013) The traditional medical uses and cytotoxic activities of sixty-one Egyptian plants: discovery of an active cardiac glycoside from Urginea maritima. J Ethnopharmacol 145:746–757
Heredia-Díaz Y, García-Díaz J, López-González T, Chil-Nuñez I, Arias-Ramos D, Escalona-Arranz JC, González-Fernández R, Costa-Acosta J, Suarez-Cruz D, Sánchez-Torres M, Martínez-Figueredo Y (2018) An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by inhabitants of Holguín, Eastern region, Cuba. Bol Latinoam y del Caribe Plantas Med y Aromat 17:160–196
Cano JH, Volpato G (2004) Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. J Ethnopharmacol 90:293–316
Tinitana F, Rios M, Romero-Benavides JC, de la Cruz RM, Pardo-de-Santayana M (2016) Medicinal plants sold at traditional markets in southern Ecuador. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-016-0100-4
Tene V, Malagón O, Finzi PV, Vidari G, Armijos C, Zaragoza T (2007) An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe, Ecuador. J Ethnopharmacol 111:63–81
Torri MC (2013) Perceptions and uses of plants for reproductive health among traditional midwives in Ecuador: moving towards intercultural pharmacological practices. Midwifery 29:809–817
Eissa TAF, Palomino OM, Carretero ME, Gómez-Serranillos MP (2014) Ethnopharmacological study of medicinal plants used in the treatment of CNS disorders in Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. J Ethnopharmacol 151:317–332
Kidane L, Gebremedhin G, Beyene T (2018) Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Ganta Afeshum District, Eastern Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopa. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-018-0266-z
Tekle Y (2014) An ethnoveterinary botanical survey of medicinal plants in Kochore district of Gedeo zone, southern nations nationalities and peoples regional state (SNNPRs), Ethiopia. J Sci Innov Res 3:433–445
Boulogne I, Germosén-Robineau L, Ozier-Lafontaine H, Fleury M, Loranger-Merciris G (2011) TRAMIL ethnopharmalogical survey in les Saintes (Guadeloupe, French West Indies): a comparative study. J Ethnopharmacol 133:1039–1050
Agyare C, Spiegler V, Asase A, Scholz M, Hempel G, Hensel A (2018) An ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants traditionally used for cancer treatment in the Ashanti region, Ghana. J Ethnopharmacol 212:137–152
Nguta JM, Appiah-Opong R, Nyarko AK, Yeboah-Manu D, Addo PGA (2015) Medicinal plants used to treat TB in Ghana. Int J Mycobacteriology 4:116–123
Cruz EC, Andrade-Cetto A (2015) Ethnopharmacological field study of the plants used to treat type 2 diabetes among the Cakchiquels in Guatemala. J Ethnopharmacol 159:238–244
Kufer J, Heinrich M, Förther H, Pöll E (2005) Historical and modern medicinal plant uses - the example of the Ch’orti’ Maya and Ladinos in Eastern Guatemala. J Pharm Pharmacol 57:1127–1152
Ketzis JK, Brown DL (2002) Medicinal plants used to treat livestock ailments in Honduras. Int J Geogr Inf Syst 10:55–64
Bhardwaj M, Bharadwaj L, Trigunayat K, Trigunayat MM (2011) Insecticidal and wormicidal plants from Aravalli hill range of India. J Ethnopharmacol 136:103–110
Kshirsagar RD, Singh NP (2001) Some less known ethnomedicinal uses from Mysore and Coorg districts, Karnataka state, India. J Ethnopharmacol 75:231–238
Mishra D, Singh RK, Srivastava RK, Dubey SR (2013) Ethnomedicinal plants used to cure the gynaecological disorders by ethnic populace of Sitapur district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Med Plants 5:238–245
Kumar R, Bharati KA (2014) Ethnomedicines of Tharu tribes of Dudhwa National Park, India. Ethnobot Res Appl 12:1–13
Rajan S, Jayendran M, Sethuraman M (2005) Folk herbal practices among Toda tribe of the Nilgiri hills in Tamil Nadu, India. J Nat Remedies 5:52–58
Lingaraju DP, Sudarshana MS, Rajashekar N (2013) Ethnopharmacological survey of traditional medicinal plants in tribal areas of Kodagu district, Karnataka, India. J Pharm Res 6:284–297
Prabhu S, Vijayakumar S, Yabesh JEM, Ravichandran K, Sakthivel B (2014) Documentation and quantitative analysis of the local knowledge on medicinal plants in Kalrayan hills of Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu, India. J Ethnopharmacol 157:7–20
Kumar K, Sharma YP, Manhas RK, Bhatia H (2015) Ethnomedicinal plants of Shankaracharya Hill, Srinagar, J&K, India. J Ethnopharmacol 170:255–274
Guarrera PM (1999) Traditional antihelmintic, antiparasitic and repellent uses of plants in Central Italy. J Ethnopharmacol 68:183–192
Picking D, Delgoda R, Younger N, Germosén-Robineau L, Boulogne I, Mitchell S (2015) TRAMIL ethnomedicinal survey in Jamaica. J Ethnopharmacol 169:314–327
Al-Qura’n S (2009) Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan. J Ethnopharmacol 123:45–50
Hudaib M, Mohammad M, Bustanji Y, Tayyem R, Yousef M, Abuirjeie M, Aburjai T (2008) Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants in Jordan, Mujib Nature Reserve and surrounding area. J Ethnopharmacol 120:63–71
Riondato I, Donno D, Roman A, Razafintsalama VE, Petit T, Mellano MG, Torti V, De Biaggi M, Rakotoniaina EN, Giacoma C, Beccaro GL (2019) First ethnobotanical inventory and phytochemical analysis of plant species used by indigenous people living in the Maromizaha forest, Madagascar. J Ethnopharmacol 232:73–89
Razafindraibe M, Kuhlman AR, Rabarison H, Rakotoarimanana V, Rajeriarison C, Rakotoarivelo N, Randrianarivony T, Rakotoarivony F, Ludovic R, Randrianasolo A, Bussmann RW (2013) Medicinal plants used by women from Agnalazaha littoral forest (Southeastern Madagascar). J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-9-73
Mahomoodally MF, Sreekeesoon DP (2014) A quantitative ethnopharmacological documentation of natural pharmacological agents used by pediatric patients in Mauritius. Biomed Res Int. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/136757
Samoisy AK, Mahomoodally F (2016) Ethnopharmacological appraisal of culturally important medicinal plants and polyherbal formulas used against communicable diseases in Rodrigues Island. J Ethnopharmacol 194:803–818
Alonso-Castro AJ, Zapata-Morales JR, Ruiz-Padilla AJ, Solorio-Alvarado CR, Rangel-Velázquez JE, Cruz-Jiménez G, Orozco-Castellanos LM, Domínguez F, Maldonado-Miranda JJ, Carranza-Álvarez C, Castillo-Pérez LJ, Solano E, Isiordia-Espinoza MA, del Carmen J-VM, Argueta-Fuertes MA, González-Sánchez I, Ortiz-Andrade R (2017) Use of medicinal plants by health professionals in Mexico. J Ethnopharmacol 198:81–86
Andrade-Cetto A (2009) Ethnobotanical study of the medicinal plants from Tlanchinol, Hidalgo, México. J Ethnopharmacol 122:163–171
VanderJagt TJ, Ghattas R, VanderJagt DJ, Crossey M, Glew RH (2002) Comparison of the total antioxidant content of 30 widely used medicinal plants of New Mexico. Life Sci 70:1035–1040
Juárez-Vázquez MDC, Carranza-Álvarez C, Alonso-Castro AJ, González-Alcaraz VF, Bravo-Acevedo E, Chamarro-Tinajero FJ, Solano E (2013) Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used in Xalpatlahuac, Guerrero, México. J Ethnopharmacol 148:521–527
Josabad Alonso-Castro A, Jose Maldonado-Miranda J, Zarate-Martinez A, Jacobo-Salcedo MDR, Fernández-Galicia C, Alejandro Figueroa-Zuñiga L, Abel Rios-Reyes N, Angel De León-Rubio M, Andrés Medellín-Castillo N, Reyes-Munguia A, Méndez-Martínez R, Carranza-Alvarez C (2012) Medicinal plants used in the Huasteca Potosina, México. J Ethnopharmacol 143:292–298
Vera-Ku M, Méndez-González M, Moo-Puc R, Rosado-Vallado M, Simá-Polanco P, Cedillo-Rivera R, Peraza-Sánchez SR (2010) Medicinal potions used against infectious bowel diseases in Mayan traditional medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 132:303–308
Frei B, Baltisberger M, Sticher O, Heinrich M (1998) Medical ethnobotany of the Zapotecs of the Isthmus-Sierra (Oaxaca, Mexico). Documentation and assessment of indigenous uses. J Ethnopharmacol 62:149–165
El Mansouri L, Ennabili A, Bousta D (2011) Socioeconomic interest and valorization of medicinal plants from the Rissani oasis (SE of Morocco). Bol Latinoam y del Caribe Plantas Med y Aromat 10:30–45
El-Hilaly J, Hmammouchi M, Lyoussi B (2003) Ethnobotanical studies and economic evaluation of medicinal plants in Taounate province (Northern Morocco). J Ethnopharmacol 86:149–158
Touiti N, Houssaini TS, Iken I, Benslimane A, Achour S (2019) Prevalence of herbal medicine use among patients with kidney disease: a cross-sectional study from Morocco. Nephrol Ther. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nephro.2019.01.007
Mrabti HN, Jaradat N, Kachmar MR, Ed-Dra A, Ouahbi A, Cherrah Y, El Abbes FM (2019) Integrative herbal treatments of diabetes in Beni Mellal region of Morocco. J Integr Med 17:93–99
Laadim M, Ouahidi M, Zidane L, El Hessni A, Ouichou A, Mesfioui A (2017) Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used for the treatment of diabetes in the town of Sidi Slimane (Morocco). J Pharmacogn Phytother 9:101–110
Hachi M, Ouafae B, Hachi T, Mohamed EB, Imane B, Atmane R, Zidane L (2016) Contribution to the ethnobotanical study of antidiabetic medicinal plants of the Central Middle Atlas region (Morocco). Lazaroa 37:135–144. https://doi.org/10.5209/LAZAROA.51854
Teixidor-Toneu I, Martin GJ, Ouhammou A, Puri RK, Hawkins JA (2016) An ethnomedicinal survey of a Tashelhit-speaking community in the High Atlas, Morocco. J Ethnopharmacol 188:96–110
Orch H, Douira A, Zidane L (2015) Étude ethnobotanique des plantes médicinales utilisées dans le traitement du diabète, et des maladies cardiaques dans la région d’Izarène (Nord du Maroc). J Appl Biosci 86:7940–7956
Bousta D, Boukhira S, Aafi A, Ghanmi M, el Mansouri L (2014) Ethnopharmacological Study of anti-diabetic medicinal plants used in the Middle-Atlas region of Morocco (Sefrou region). Int J Pharma Res Health Sci 2:75–79
Ghourri M, Zidane L, Douira A (2013) Usage des plantes médicinales dans le traitement du Diabète Au Sahara marocain (Tan-Tan). J Anim Plant Sci 17:2388–2411
El Amrani F, Rhallab A, Alaoui T, El Badaoui K, Chakir S (2010) Étude ethnopharmacologique de quelques plantes utilisées dans le traitement du diabète dans la région de Meknès-Tafilalet (Maroc). Phytotherapie 8:161–165
Tahraoui A, El-Hilaly J, Israili ZH, Lyoussi B (2007) Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used in the traditional treatment of hypertension and diabetes in south-eastern Morocco (Errachidia province). J Ethnopharmacol 110:105–117
Eddouks M, Maghrani M, Lemhadri A, Ouahidi ML, Jouad H (2002) Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiac disease in the south-east region of Morocco (Tafilalet). J Ethnopharmacol 82:97–103
Jouad H, Haloui M, Rhiouani H, El Hilaly J, Eddouks M (2001) Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes, cardiac and renal diseases in the North centre region of Morocco (Fez-Boulemane). J Ethnopharmacol 77:175–182
Ziyyat A, Legssyer A, Mekhfi H, Dassouli A, Serhrouchni M, Benjelloun W (1997) Phytotherapy of hypertension and diabetes in oriental Morocco. J Ethnopharmacol 58:45–54
Khabbach A, Libiad M, Ennabili A, Bousta D (2012) Medicinal and cosmetic use of plants from the province of Taza, Northern Morocco. Bol Latinoam y del Caribe Plantas Med y Aromat 11:46–60
Libiad M, Khabbach A, Ennabili A (2011) Exploitation of plants from upstream of the Sebou-wadi watershed(province of Taounate, North of Morocco). Biol Divers Conserv 4:81–91
Merzouki A, Ed-derfoufi F, Molero Mesa J (2000) Contribution to the knowledge of Rifian traditional medicine. II: Folk medicine in Ksar Lakbir district (NW Morocco). Fitoterapia 71:278–307
Boufous H, Marhoume F, Chait A, Bagri A (2017) Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants with hallucinogenic effect and used against pain, inflammatory diseases, diabetes and urinary lithiasis in Zagora “Morocco”. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 6:342–350
Eddouks M, Ajebli M, Hebi M (2017) Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used in Daraa-Tafilalet region (Province of Errachidia), Morocco. J Ethnopharmacol 198:516–530
Jamila F, Mostafa E (2014) Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by people in Oriental Morocco to manage various ailments. J Ethnopharmacol 154:76–87
Ribeiro A, Romeiras MM, Tavares J, Faria MT (2010) Ethnobotanical survey in Canhane village, district of Massingir, Mozambique: medicinal plants and traditional knowledge. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 6. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-6-33
Van Andel T, Van’t Klooster C (2007) Medicinal plant use by Surinamese immigrants in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: results of a pilot market survey. In: Traveling cultures and plants: the ethnobiology and ethnopharmacy of human migrations, pp 122–144
Amujoyegbe OO, Idu M, Agbedahunsi JM, Erhabor JO (2016) Ethnomedicinal survey of medicinal plants used in the management of sickle cell disorder in Southern Nigeria. J Ethnopharmacol 185:347–360
Lawal IO, Uzokwe NE, Ladipo DO, Asinwa IO, Igboanugo ABI (2009) Ethnophytotherapeutic information for the treatment of high blood pressure among the people of Ilugun, Ilugun area of Ogun State, south-west Nigeria. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 3:222–226
Erhenhi AH (2016) Medicinal plants used for the treatment of rheumatism by Amahor people of Edo State, Nigeria. Int J Plant Res 6:7–12
Abubakar IB, Ukwuani-Kwaja AN, Olayiwola FS, Malami I, Muhammad A, Ahmed SJ, Nurudeen QO, Falana MB (2020) An inventory of medicinal plants used for treatment of cancer in Kwara and Lagos state, Nigeria. Eur J Integr Med 34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eujim.2020.101062
Ahmed MJ, Akhtar T (2016) Indigenous knowledge of the use of medicinal plants in Bheri, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir. Elsevier GmbH, Pakistan
Ijaz F, Iqbal Z, Rahman IU, Alam J, Khan SM, Shah GM, Khan K, Afzal A (2016) Investigation of traditional medicinal, floral knowledge of Sarban Hills, Abbottabad, KP, Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol 179:208–233
Hussain W, Badshah L, Ullah M, Ali M, Ali A, Hussain F (2018) Quantitative study of medicinal plants used by the communities residing in Koh-e-Safaid Range, northern Pakistani-Afghan borders. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-018-0229-4
Shah A, Rahim S (2017) Ethnomedicinal uses of plants for the treatment of malaria in Soon Valley, Khushab, Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol 200:84–106
Shinwari MI, Khan MA (2000) Folk use of medicinal herbs of Margalla Hills National Park, Islamabad. J Ethnopharmacol 69:45–56
Ahmad M, Khan MPZ, Mukhtar A, Zafar M, Sultana S, Jahan S (2016) Ethnopharmacological survey on medicinal plants used in herbal drinks among the traditional communities of Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol 184:154–186
Ahmad SS (2007) Medicinal wild plants from Lahore-Islamabad motorway (M-2). Pak J Bot 39:355–375
Hayat MQ, Khan MA, Ahmad M, Shaheen N, Yasmin G, Akhter S (2008) Ethnotaxonomical approach in the identification of useful medicinal flora of Tehsil Pindigheb (District Attock) Pakistan. Ethnobot Res Appl 6:35–62
Sher H, Bussmann RW, Hart R, De Boer HJ (2016) Traditional use of medicinal plants among Kalasha, Ismaeli and Sunni groups in Chitral District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. J Ethnopharmacol 188:57–69
Malik K, Ahmad M, Zhang G, Rashid N, Zafar M, Sultana S, Shah SN (2018) Traditional plant-based medicines used to treat musculoskeletal disorders in Northern Pakistan. Eur J Integr Med 19:17–64
Gupta MP, Solís PN, Calderón AI, Guinneau-Sinclair F, Correa M, Galdames C, Guerra C, Espinosa A, Alvenda GI, Robles G, Ocampo R (2005) Medical ethnobotany of the Teribes of Bocas del Toro, Panama. J Ethnopharmacol 96:389–401
Gonzales De La Cruz M, Baldeón Malpartida S, Beltrán Santiago H, Jullian V, Bourdy G (2014) Hot and cold: medicinal plant uses in Quechua speaking communities in the high Andes (Callejón de Huaylas, Ancash, Perú). J Ethnopharmacol 155:1093–1117
Monigatti M, Bussmann RW, Weckerle CS (2013) Medicinal plant use in two Andean communities located at different altitudes in the Bolívar Province, Peru. J Ethnopharmacol 145:450–464
Luziatelli G, Sørensen M, Theilade I, Mølgaard P (2010) Asháninka medicinal plants: a case study from the native community of Bajo Quimiriki, Junín, Peru. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 6. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-6-21
Sanz-Biset J, Campos-de-la-Cruz J, Epiquién-Rivera MA, Cañigueral S (2009) A first survey on the medicinal plants of the Chazuta valley (Peruvian Amazon). J Ethnopharmacol 122:333–362
De-la-Cruz H, Vilcapoma G, Zevallos PA (2007) Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Andean people of Canta, Lima, Peru. J Ethnopharmacol 111:284–294
Rehecho S, Uriarte-Pueyo I, Calvo J, Vivas LA, Calvo MI (2011) Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants in Nor-Yauyos, a part of the Landscape Reserve Nor-Yauyos-Cochas, Peru. J Ethnopharmacol 133:75–85
Kamagaju L, Bizuru E, Minani V, Morandini R, Stévigny C, Ghanem G, Duez P (2013) An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Rwanda for voluntary depigmentation. J Ethnopharmacol 150:708–717
Afolayan AJ, Grierson DS, Mbeng WO (2014) Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the management of skin disorders among the Xhosa communities of the Amathole District, Eastern Cape, South Africa. J Ethnopharmacol 153:220–232
Komoreng L, Thekisoe O, Lehasa S, Tiwani T, Mzizi N, Mokoena N, Khambule N, Ndebele S, Mdletshe N (2017) An ethnobotanical survey of traditional medicinal plants used against lymphatic filariasis in South Africa. South African J Bot 111:12–16
de Wet H, Nkwanyana MN, van Vuuren SF (2010) Medicinal plants used for the treatment of diarrhoea in northern Maputaland, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. J Ethnopharmacol 130:284–289
Blanco E, Macía MJ, Morales R (1999) Medicinal and veterinary plants of El Caurel (Galicia, northwest Spain). J Ethnopharmacol 65:113–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00178-0
Kisangau DP, Lyaruu HVM, Hosea KM, Joseph CC (2007) Use of traditional medicines in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Tanzania: a case in the Bukoba rural district. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 3. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-3-29
Maregesi SM, Ngassapa OD, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ (2007) Ethnopharmacological survey of the Bunda district, Tanzania: plants used to treat infectious diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 113:457–470
Moshi MJ, Otieno DF, Weisheit A (2012) Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north-western Tanzania. Part 3: plants used in traditional medicine in Kikuku village, Muleba District. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-8-14
Lans C, Georges K, Brown G (2007) Non-experimental validation of ethnoveterinary plants and indigenous knowledge used for backyard pigs and chickens in Trinidad and Tobago. Trop Anim Health Prod 39:375–385
Ssegawa P, Kasenene JM (2007) Medicinal plant diversity and uses in the Sango bay area, Southern Uganda. J Ethnopharmacol 113:521–540
Kamatenesi MM, Acipa A, Oryem-Origa H (2011) Medicinal plants of Otwal and Ngai Sub Counties in Oyam District, Northern Uganda. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-7-7
Hamill FA, Apio S, Mubiru NK, Bukenya-Ziraba R, Mosango M, Maganyi OW, Soejarto DD (2003) Traditional herbal drugs of southern Uganda, II: literature analysis and antimicrobial assays. J Ethnopharmacol 84:57–78
Martínez N, Castañeda Y, Benítez G (2012) Ethnobotanical knowledge of native plants in Santa Rita Estado Aragua, Venezuela. Emirates J Food Agric 24:133–136
Lee C, Kim SY, Eum S, Paik JH, Bach TT, Darshetkar AM, Choudhary RK, Van Hai D, Quang BH, Thanh NT, Choi S (2019) Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by local Van Kieu ethnic people of Bac Huong Hoa nature reserve, Vietnam. J Ethnopharmacol 231:283–294
Mahomoodally MF, Mootoosamy A (2016) Wambugu S (2016) Traditional therapies used to manage diabetes and related complications in Mauritius: a comparative ethnoreligious study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/4523828
Zhang J, Xie Z, Zhang N, Zhong J (2017) Nanosuspension drug delivery system: preparation, characterization, postproduction processing, dosage form, and application. Elsevier Inc.
Pereira WS, Ribeiro BP, Sousa AIP, Serra ICPB, Mattar NS, Fortes TS, Reis AS, Silva LA, Barroqueiro ESB, Guerra RNM, Nascimento FRF (2010) Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of oral treatment with Chenopodium ambrosioides in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 127:602–605
Da Silva MGC, Amorim RNL, Câmara CC, Fontenele Neto JD, Soto-Blanco B (2014) Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of aqueous extracts of chenopodium ambrosioides leaves in rats. J Med Food 17:979–984
Gadano A, Gurni A, López P, Ferraro G, Carballo M (2002) In vitro genotoxic evaluation of the medicinal plant Chenopodium ambrosioides L. J Ethnopharmacol 81:11–16
Gadano AB, Gurni AA, Carballo MA (2006) Argentine folk medicine: genotoxic effects of Chenopodiaceae family. J Ethnopharmacol 103:246–251
Shah H, Khan AA (2017) Phytochemical characterization of an important medicinal plant, Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. Nat Prod Res 31:2321–2324
Ghareeb MA, Saad AM, Abdou AM, Refahy LAG, Ahmed WS (2016) A new kaempferol glycoside with antioxidant activity from Chenopodium ambrosioides growing in Egypt. Orient J Chem 32:3053–3061
Zhi ZZYZ (2014) Chemical constituents from Chenopodium ambrosioides. China J Chinese Mater Medica 39:254–257
Jain N, Alam MS, Kamil M, Ilyas M, Niwa M, Sakae A (1990) Two flavonol glycosides from Chenopodium ambrosioides. Phytochemistry 29:3988–3991
Bogacheva N, Kogan L, Libizov N (1972) Triterpene glycosides of Chenopodium ambrosioides. Chem Nat Compd 8. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00563766
Arisawa M, Minabe N, Saeki R, Takakuwa T, Nakaoiki T (1971) Studies on unutilized resources. V1. The components of flavonoids in Chenopodium genus plants (1) Flavonoids of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Yakugaku Zasshi 91:522–524
Hammoda HM, Harraz FM, El Ghazouly MG, Radwan MM, Elsohly MA, Wanas AS, Bassam SM (2015) Two new flavone glycosides from Chenopodium ambrosioides growing wildly in Egypt. Rec Nat Prod 9:609–613
Ahmed AA (2000) Highly oxygenated monoterpenes from Chenopodium ambrosioides. J Nat Prod 63:989–991
Kiuchi F, Itano Y, Uchiyama N, Honda G, Tsubouchi A, Nakajima-Shimada J, Aoki T (2002) Monoterpene hydroperoxides with trypanocidal activity from Chenopodium ambrosioides. J Nat Prod 65:509–512
Hou SQ, Li YH, Huang XZ, Li R, Lu H, Tian K, Ruan RS, Li YK (2017) Polyol monoterpenes isolated from Chenopodium ambrosioides. Nat Prod Res 31:2467–2472
Trivellatograssi L, Malheiros A, Meyre-Silva C, Da Silva BZ, Monguilhott ED, Fröde TS, Da Silva KABS, De Souza MM (2013) From popular use to pharmacological validation: a study of the anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and healing effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides extract. J Ethnopharmacol 145:127–138
Kasali AA, Ekundayo O, Paul C, König WA, Eshilokun AO, Ige B (2006) 1,2:3,4-diepoxy-p-menthane and 1,4-epoxy-p-menth- 2-ene: rare monoterpenoids from the essential oil of chenopodium ambrosioides L. Var ambrosioides leaves. J Essent Oil Res 18:13–15
Paré PW, Zajicek J, Ferracini VL, Melo IS (1993) Antifungal terpenoids from Chenopodium ambrosioides. Biochem Syst Ecol 21:649–653
Okuyama E, Umeyama K, Saito Y, Yamazaki M, Satake M (1993) Ascaridole as pharmacologically active principle of “Paico,” a Peruvian medicinal plant. Chem Pharm Bull 41:1309–1311
Chu SS, Hu F, Long Z (2011) Composition of essential oil of Chinese Chenopodium ambrosioides and insecticidal activity against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. Pest 25:714–718
Salt TA, Adler JH (1985) Diversity of sterol composition in the family Chenopodiaceae. Lipids 20:594–601
Song K, Zhang J, Zhang P, Wang HQ, Liu C, Li BM, Kang J, Chen RY (2015) Five new bioactive compounds from Chenopodium ambrosioides. J Asian Nat Prod Res 17:482–490
Mugao LG, Gichimu BM, Muturi PW, Mukono ST (2020) Characterization of the volatile components of essential oils of selected plants in Kenya. Biochem Res Int. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8861798
De Cássia DA, Silveira ER, Andrade LN, De Sousa DP (2013) A review on anti-inflammatory activity of monoterpenes. Molecules 18:1227–1254
Graßmann J (2005) Terpenoids as plant antioxidants. Vitam Horm 72:505–535
Buckle J (2015) Basic plant taxonomy, basic essential oil chemistry, extraction, biosynthesis, and analysis. Clin Aromather 36:37–72
Weirong CAI, Xiaohong GU, Tang J (2010) Extraction, purification, and characterization of the flavonoids from Opuntia milpa alta skin. Czech J Food Sci 28:108–116
Rodríguez De Luna SL, Ramírez-Garza RE, Serna Saldívar SO (2020) Environmentally friendly methods for flavonoid extraction from plant material: impact of their operating conditions on yield and antioxidant properties. Sci World J 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/6792069
Pereira-de-Morais L, Silva A, da Silva RE, Ferraz Navarro DM, Melo Coutinho HD, Menezes IR, Kerntopf MR, Cunha FA, Leal-Cardoso JH, Barbosa R (2020) Myorelaxant action of the Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants essential oil and its major constituent α-terpinene in isolated rat trachea. Food Chem 325:126923. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126923
Almeida-Bezerra JW, Rodrigues Costa A, de Freitas MA, Rodrigues FC, de Souza MA, da Silva ARP, dos Santos ATL, Vieiralves Linhares K, Melo Coutinho HD, de Lima Silva JR, Bezerra Morais-Braga MF (2019) Chemical composition, antimicrobial, modulator and antioxidant activity of essential oil of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 65:58–64
Santiago JA, Cardoso MDG, Batista LR, de Castro EM, Teixeira ML, Pires MF (2016) Essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: secretory structures, antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Acta Sci Biol Sci 38:139–147
Chekem MSG, Lunga PK, Tamokou JD, Kuiate JR, Tane P, Vilarem G, Cerny M (2010) Antifungal properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides essential oil against candida species. Pharmaceuticals 3:2900–2909
Li J, Yang X, Yu J, Li Z, Deng Q, Cao Y, Chen X, Zhang H, Wang Y (2020) Chemical composition of the volatile oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. from Mianyang in Sichuan Province of China and its sub-chronic toxicity in mice. Trop J Pharm Res 19:1985–1991
Jaramillo BE, Duarte ER, Delgado W (2012) Bioactivity of essential oil from Colombian Chenopodium ambrosioides. Rev Cuba Plantas Med 17:54–64
Nenaah GE (2004) Ibrahim SIA (2011) Chemical composition and the insecticidal activity of certain plants applied as powders and essential oils against two stored-products coleopteran beetles. J Pest Sci 84:393–402. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-011-0354-5
Singh HP, Batish DR, Kohli RK, Mittal S, Yadav S (2008) Chemical composition of essential oil from leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides from Chandigarh, India. Chem Nat Compd 44:378–379
Gupta D, Charles R, Mehta VK, Garg SN, Kumar S (2002) Chemical examination of the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides l. From the southern hills of India. J Essent Oil Res 14:93–94.
Jirovetz L, Buchbauer G, Fleischhacker W (2000) Analysis of the essential oil of the leaves of the medicinal plant Chenopodium ambrosioides var. anthelminticum (L.) A. Gray from India. Sci Pharm 68:123–128
Ait Sidi Brahim M, Fadli M, Hassani L, Boulay B, Markouk M, Bekkouche K, Abbad A, Ait Ali M, Larhsini M (2015) Chenopodium ambrosioides var. ambrosioides used in Moroccan traditional medicine can enhance the antimicrobial activity of conventional antibiotics. Ind Crop Prod 71:37–43
Muhayimana A, Chalchat JC, Garry RP (1998) Chemical composition of essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. from Rwanda. J Essent Oil Res 10:690–692
Rudbäck J, Bergström MA, Börje A, Nilsson U, Karlberg AT (2012) α-Terpinene, an antioxidant in tea tree oil, autoxidizes rapidly to skin allergens on air exposure. Chem Res Toxicol 25:713–721
Arena JS, Omarini AB, Zunino MP, Peschiutta ML, Defagó MT, Zygadlo JA (2018) Essential oils from Dysphania ambrosioides and Tagetes minuta enhance the toxicity of a conventional insecticide against Alphitobius diaperinus. Ind Crop Prod 122:190–194
Gillij YG, Gleiser RM, Zygadlo JA (2008) Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina. Bioresour Technol 99:2507–2515
Bossou AD, Mangelinckx S, Yedomonhan H, Boko PM, Akogbeto MC, De Kimpe N, Avlessi F, Sohounhloue DCK (2013) Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles). Parasit Vectors 6. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-6-337
Monteiro JNM, Archanjo AB, Passos GP, Costa AV, Porfrio LC, Martins IVF (2017) Chenopodium ambrosioides L. essential oil and ethanol extract on control of canine Ancylostoma spp. Semin Agrar 38:1947–1953
Soares MH, Dias HJ, Vieira TM, de Souza MGM, Cruz AFF, Badoco FR, Nicolella HD, Cunha WR, Groppo M, Martins CHG, Tavares DC, Magalhães LG, Crotti AEM (2017) Chemical Composition, antibacterial, schistosomicidal, and cytotoxic activities of the essential oil of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants (Chenopodiaceae). Chem Biodivers 14. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201700149
Degenhardt RT, Farias IV, Grassi LT, Franchi GC, Nowill AE, Bittencourt CM, Wagner TM, de Souza MM, Cruz AB, Malheiros A (2016) Characterization and evaluation of the cytotoxic potential of the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides. Braz J Pharmacogn 26:56–61
Jardim CM, Jham GN, Dhingra OD, Freire MM (2008) Composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of the brazilian Chenopodium ambrosioides L. J Chem Ecol 34:1213–1218
Zhu WX, Zhao K, Chu SS, Liu ZL (2012) Evaluation of essential oil and its three main active ingredients of Chinese chenopodium ambrosioides (family: Chenopodiaceae) against Blattella germanica. J Arthropod Borne Dis 6:90–97
Cavalli JF, Tomi F, Bernardini AF, Casanova J (2004) Combined analysis of the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides by GC, GC-MS and 13C-NMR spectroscopy: quantitative determination of ascaridole, a heat-sensitive compound. Phytochem Anal 15:275–279
Omidbaigi R, Sefidkon F, Nasrabadi FB (2005) Essential oil content and compositions of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. J Essent Oil-Bearing Plants 8:154–158
Pandey AK, Singh P, Palni UT, Tripathi NN (2013) Application of Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. essential oil as a botanical fungicide for the management of fungal deterioration in pulses. Biol Agric Hortic 29:197–208
Ávila-Blanco ME, Rodríguez MG, Moreno Duque JL, Muñoz-Ortega M, Ventura-Juárez J (2014) Amoebicidal activity of essential oil of dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & clemants in an amoebic liver abscess hamster model. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/930208
Koba K, Catherine G, Raynaud C, Chaumont J-P, Sanda K, Laurence N (2009) Chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. essential oil from Togo. Bangladesh J Sci Ind Res 44:435–440
Reyes-Becerril M, Angulo C, Sanchez V, Vázquez-Martínez J, López MG (2019) Antioxidant, intestinal immune status and antics L. in fish: in vitro and in vivo studies. Fish Shellfish Immunol 86:420–428
Blanckaert I, Paredes-Flores M, Espinosa-García FJ, Piñero D, Lira R (2012) Ethnobotanical, morphological, phytochemical and molecular evidence for the incipient domestication of Epazote (Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: Chenopodiaceae) in a semi-arid region of Mexico. Genet Resour Crop Evol 59:557–573
Jardim CM, Jham GN, Dhingra OD, Freire MM (2010) Chemical composition and antifungal activity of the hexane extract of the Brazilian. J Braz Chem Soc 21:1814–1818
Pino JA, Marbot R, Real IM (2003) Essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. from Cuba. J Essent Oil Res 15:213–214
Prasad CS, Shukla R, Kumar A, Dubey NK (2010) In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon martini and Chenopodium ambrosioides and their synergism against dermatophytes. Mycoses 53:123–129
Sagrero-Nieves L, Bartley JP (1995) Volatile constituents from the leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. J Essent Oil Res 7:221–223
Althobaiti F (2020) Evaluation of the Chenopodium ambrosioides leaf extract from Taif region, Saudi Arabia on antimicroorganisms and the assessment of its genetic diversity using the RAMP Assay. Biomed Pharmacol J 13:725–736
Monzote L, García M, Montalvo AM, Linares R, Scull R (2009) Effect of oral treatment with the essential oil from chenopodium ambrosioides against cutaneous Leishmaniasis in BALB/c Mice, caused by Leishmania amazonensis. Forsch Komplementarmed 16:334–338
Monzote L, Pastor J, Scull R, Gille L (2014) Antileishmanial activity of essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and its main components against experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. Phytomedicine 21:1048–1052
Stappen I, Tabanca N, Ali A, Wanner J, Lal B, Jaitak V, Wedge DE, Kaul VK, Schmidt E, Jirovetz L (2018) Antifungal and repellent activities of the essential oils from three aromatic herbs from western Himalaya. Open Chem 16:306–316
Yang J-Y, Ryu S-H, Lim S-J, Choi G-H, Park B-J (2016) Quantitative determination of ascaridole, carvacrol and p-cymene in the biopesticides products derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides L. extracts by Gas Chromatography. Korean J Environ Agric 35:211–215
Onocha PA, Ekundayo O, Eramo T, Laakso I (1999) Essential oil constituents of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves from Nigeria. J Essent Oil Res 11:220–222
Owolabi MS, Lajide L, Oladimeji MO, Setzer WN, Palazzo MC, Olowu RA, Ogundajo A (2009) Volatile constituents and antibacterial screening of the oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. growing in Nigeria. Nat Prod Commun 4:989–992
Bibiano CS, de Carvalho AA, Bertolucci SKV, Torres SS, Corrêa RM, Pinto JEBP (2019) Organic manure sources play fundamental roles in growth and quali-quantitative production of essential oil from Dysphania ambrosioides L. Ind Crop Prod 139:111512
Soares MH, Dias HJ, Vieira TM, De Souza MG, Cruz AF, Badoco FR, Nicolella HD, Cunha WR, Groppo M, Martins CH, Tavares DC, Magalhaes LG, Crotti AE (2017) Chemical composition, antibacterial, schistosomicidal, and cytotoxic activities of the essential oil of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants (Chenopodiaceae). Chem Biodivers 14:e1700149. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201700149
Jesus RS, Piana M, Freitas RB, Brum TF, Alves CFS, Belke BV, Mossmann NJ, Cruz RC, Santos RCV, Dalmolin TV, Bianchini BV, Campos MMA, Bauermann LF (2018) In vitro antimicrobial and antimycobacterial activity and HPLC–DAD screening of phenolics from Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Braz J Microbiol 49:296–302
Tapondjou LA, Adler C, Bouda H, Fontem DA (2002) Efficacy of powder and essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves as post-harvest grain protectants against six-stored product beetles. J Stored Prod Res 38:395–402
Rodrigues JGM, Albuquerque PSV, Nascimento JR, Campos JAV, Godinho ASS, Araújo SJ, Brito JM, Jesus CM, Miranda GS, Rezende MC, Negrão-Corrêa DA, Rocha CQ, Silva LA, Guerra RNM, Nascimento FRF (2021) The immunomodulatory activity of Chenopodium ambrosioides reduces the parasite burden and hepatic granulomatous inflammation in Schistosoma mansoni-infection. J Ethnopharmacol 264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113287
Barros L, Pereira E, Calhelha RC, Dueñas M, Carvalho AM, Santos-Buelga C, Ferreira ICFR (2013) Bioactivity and chemical characterization in hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. J Funct Foods 5:1732–1740
Villalobos-Delgado LH, González-Mondragón EG, Salazar Govea AY, Andrade JR, Santiago-Castro JT (2017) Potential application of epazote (Chenopodium ambrosioides L.) as natural antioxidant in raw ground pork. LWT Food Sci Technol 84:306–313
Gohar AA, Elmazar MMA (1997) Isolation of hypotensive flavonoids from Chenopodium species growing in Egypt. Phyther Res 11:564–567
Limaverde PW, Campina FF, da Cunha FAB, Crispim FD, Figueredo FG, Lima LF, Datiane M, Oliveira-Tintino C, De Matos YM, Morais-Braga MF, Menezes IR, Balbino VQ, Coutinho HD, Siqueira-Júnior JP, Almeida JR, Tintino SR (2017) Inhibition of the TetK efflux-pump by the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and α-terpinene against Staphylococcus aureus IS-58. Food Chem Toxicol 109:957–961
Oliveira-Tintino CD, Tintino SR, Limaverde PW, Figueredo FG, Campina FF, da Cunha FA, da Costa RH, Pereira PS, Lima LF, de Matos YM, Coutinho HD, Siqueira-Júnior JP, Balbino VQ, da Silva TG (2018) Inhibition of the essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and α-terpinene on the NorA efflux-pump of Staphylococcus aureus. Food Chem 262:72–77
Pollack Y, Segal R, Golenser J (1990) The effect of ascaridole on the in vitro development of Plasmodium falciparum. Parasitol Res 76:570–572
Efferth T, Olbrich A, Sauerbrey A, Ross DD, Gebhart E, Neugebauer M (2002) Activity of ascaridol from the anthelmintic herb Chenopodium anthelminticum L. against sensitive and multidrug - resistant tumor cells. Anticancer Res 22:4221–4224
Gille L, Monzote L, Stamberg W, Staniek K (2010) Toxicity of ascaridole from Chenopodium ambrosioides in mammalian mitochondria. BMC Pharmacol 10:A10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2210-10-s1-a10
Pinheiro Neto VF, Ribeiro RM, Morais CS, Campos MB, Vieira DA, Guerra PC, Abreu-Silva AL, Silva Junior JR, Nascimento FRF, Borges MOR, Borges ACR (2017) Chenopodium ambrosioides as a bone graft substitute in rabbits radius fracture. BMC Complement Altern Med 17:350. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1862-5
da Penha ES, Lacerda-Santos R, de Medeiros LADM, Araújo Rosendo R, dos Santos A, Fook MVL, de Sousa WJB, de Oliveira FM, Montagna E (2020) Effect of chitosan and Dysphania ambrosioides on the bone regeneration process: a randomized controlled trial in an animal model. Microsc Res Tech 83:1–9
Pereira WS, da Silva GP, Vigliano MV, Leal NRF, Pinto FA, Fernandes DC, Santos SVM, Martino T, Nascimento JR, de Azevedo APS, Fonseca EN, Velozo LSM, Souza Neto LR, Bastos FF, Portari EA, Sabino KCC, Nascimento F, Coelho MGP (2018) Anti-arthritic properties of crude extract from Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves. J Pharm Pharmacol 70:1078–1091
Oliveira E, da Silva M, Sprenger L, Pedrassani D (2017) In vitro activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides against engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Arq Inst Biol (Sao Paulo) 84:1–7
Musa A, Međo I, Marić I, Marčić D (2017) Acaricidal and sublethal effects of a Chenopodium-based biopesticide on the two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae). Exp Appl Acarol 71:211–226
Kouam MK, Payne VK, Miégoué E, Tendonkeng F, Lemoufouet J, Kana JR, Boukila B, Pamo ET (2015, 2015) Evaluation of in vivo acaricidal effect of soap containing essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves on Rhipicephalus lunulatus in the western highland of Cameroon. J Pathog. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/516869
Eguale T, Giday M (2009) In vitro anthelmintic activity of three medicinal plants against Haemonchus contortus. Int J Green Pharm 3:29–34
Ketzis JK, Taylor A, Bowman DD, Brown DL, Warnick LD, Erb HN (2002) Chenopodium ambrosioides and its essential oil as treatments for Haemonchus contortus and mixed adult-nematode infections in goats. Small Rumin Res 44:193–200
Zamilpa A, García-Alanís C, López-Arellano ME, Hernández-Velázquez VM, Valladares-Cisneros MG, Salinas-Sánchez DO, Mendoza-De Gives P (2019) In vitro nematicidal effect of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Castela tortuosa n-hexane extracts against Haemonchus contortus (Nematoda) and their anthelmintic effect in gerbils. J Helminthol 93:434–439
Knauth P, Acevedo-Hernández GJ, Cano ME, Gutiérrez-Lomelí M, López Z (2018) In vitro bioactivity of methanolic extracts from Amphipterygium adstringens (Schltdl.) Schiede ex Standl., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Cirsium mexicanum DC., Eryngium carlinae F. Delaroche, and Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. used in traditional medicine in Mexico. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3610364
Nguta JM, Appiah-Opong R, Nyarko AK, Yeboah-Manu D, Addo PGA, Otchere I, Kissi-Twum A (2016) Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activity of selected medicinal plant extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 182:10–15
Lall N, Meyer JJM (1999) In vitro inhibition of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by ethnobotanically selected South African plants. J Ethnopharmacol 66:347–354
Mabona U, Viljoen A, Shikanga E, Marston A, Van Vuuren S (2013) Antimicrobial activity of southern African medicinal plants with dermatological relevance: from an ethnopharmacological screening approach to combination studies and the isolation of a bioactive compound. J Ethnopharmacol 148:45–55
Nascimento FRF, Cruz GVB, Pereira PVS, Maciel MCG, Silva LA, Azevedo APS, Barroqueiro ESB, Guerra RNM (2006) Ascitic and solid Ehrlich tumor inhibition by Chenopodium ambrosioides L. treatment. Life Sci 78:2650–2653
Cruz GVB, Pereira PVS, Patrício FJ, Costa GC, Sousa SM, Frazão JB, Aragão-Filho WC, Maciel MCG, Silva LA, Amaral FMM, Barroqueiro ESB, Guerra RNM, Nascimento FRF (2007) Increase of cellular recruitment, phagocytosis ability and nitric oxide production induced by hydroalcoholic extract from Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves. J Ethnopharmacol 111:148–154
Wang Y, Zhu X, Ma H, Du R, Li D, Ma D (2016) Essential Oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells. Mater J Chinese Med 39:1124–1128
Song M-J, Lee S-M, Kim D-K (2011) Antidiabetic effect of Chenopodium ambrosioides. Phytopharmacology 1:12–15
Zohra T, Ovais M, Khalil AT, Qasim M, Ayaz M, Shinwari ZK (2018) Extraction optimization, total phenolic, flavonoid contents, HPLC-DAD analysis and diverse pharmacological evaluations of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants. Nat Prod Res. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2018.1437428
Velázquez C, Calzada F, Torres J, González F, Ceballos G (2006) Antisecretory activity of plants used to treat gastrointestinal disorders in Mexico. J Ethnopharmacol 103:66–70
Calzada F, Arista R, Pérez H (2010) Effect of plants used in Mexico to treat gastrointestinal disorders on charcoal-gum acacia-induced hyperperistalsis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 128:49–51
Wei H, Liu J, Li B, Zhan Z, Chen Y, Tian H, Lin S, Gu X (2015) The toxicity and physiological effect of essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Crop Prot 76:68–74
Ain QU, David M, Shah Q, Ahmad M, Jahan S (2018) Antifertility effect of methanolic leaf extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides Hook. in male Sprague Dawley rats. Andrologia 50. https://doi.org/10.1111/and.13129
Kumar R, Mishra AK, Dubey NK, Tripathi YB (2007) Evaluation of Chenopodium ambrosioides oil as a potential source of antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity. Int J Food Microbiol 115:159–164
Sousa ZL, De Oliveira FF, Da Conceição AO, Silva LAM, Rossi MH, Santos JS, Andrioli JL (2012) Biological activities of extracts from Chenopodium ambrosioides Lineu and Kielmeyera neglecta Saddi. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-0711-11-20
Correa-Royero J, Tangarife V, Durán C, Stashenko E, Mesa-Arango A (2010) Atividade antifúngica in vitro e os efeitos citotóxicos de óleos essenciais e extratos de plantas medicinais e aromáticas contra Candida krusei e Aspergillus fumigatus. Braz J Pharmacogn 20:734–741
Javaid A, Amin M (2009) Antifungal activity of methanol and n-hexane extracts of three Chenopodium species against Macrophomina phaseolina. Nat Prod Res 23:1120–1127
Calado GP, Lopes AJO, Junior LMC, Das Chagas A, Lima F, Silva LA, Pereira WS, Do Amaral FM, Garcia JB, Do Socorro S, Cartágenes M, Nascimento FR (2015) Chenopodium ambrosioides L. reduces synovial inflammation and pain in experimental osteoarthritis. PLoS One 10. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141886
Carvalho E Silva MA, Carneiro LP, Castelo Branco MF, Barros EM, Lemos SI, de Barros TL, Marques RB (2016) Anti-inflammatory effect of Mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides) extract in respiratory distress syndrome. Int J Pharm Sci Invent 5:34–39
Fidalgo LM (2007) Essential oil from chenopodium ambrosioides as a promising antileishmanial agent. Nat Prod Commun 2:1257–1262
De Queiroz AC, De Lima MF, Dias T, Da Matta CB, Cavalcante Silva LH, De Araújo-Júnior JX, De Araújo GB, De Barros Prado Moura F, Alexandre-Moreira MS (2014, 2014) Antileishmanial activity of medicinal plants used in endemic areas in Northeastern Brazil. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/478290
Cysne DN, Fortes TS, Reis AS, de Paulo RB, dos Santos FA, Amaral FM, Guerra RN, Marinho CR, Nicolete R, Nascimento FR (2016) Antimalarial potential of leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Parasitol Res 115:4327–4334
Shoaib M, Shah SWA, Ali N, Shah I, Ullah S, Ghias M, Tahir MN, Gul F, Akhtar S, Ullah A, Akbar W, Ullah A (2016) Scientific investigation of crude alkaloids from medicinal plants for the management of pain. BMC Complement Altern Med 16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1157-2
Bum EN, Soudi S, Ayissi ER, Dong C, Lakoulo NH, Maidawa F, Seke PFE, Nanga LD, Taiwe GS, Dimo T, Njikam N, Rakotonirina A, Rakotonirina SV, Kamanyi A (2011) Anxiolytic activity evaluation of four medicinal plants from Cameroon. African J Tradit Complement Altern Med 8:130–139
Boojar MMA, Goodarzi F (2007) The copper tolerance strategies and the role of antioxidative enzymes in three plant species grown on copper mine. Chemosphere 67:2138–2147
Adejumo OE, Owa-Agbanah IS, Kolapo AL, Ayoola MD (2011) Phytochemical and antisickling activities of Entandrophragma utile, Chenopodium ambrosioides and Petiveria alliacea. J Med Plant Res 5:1531–1535
El-Emam MAW, Mahmoud SS, Bayaumy FE (2015) Potential role of mefloquine (antimalarial drug) and methanol extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Sesbania sesban in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Asian Pacific J Trop Dis 5:608–613
Kamel EG, El-Emam MA, Mahmoud SSM, Fouda FM, Bayaumy FE (2011) Parasitological and biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice treated with methanol extract from the plants Chenopodium ambrosioides, Conyza dioscorides and Sesbania sesban. Parasitol Int 60:388–392
Ye H, Liu Y, Li N, Yu J, Cheng H, Li J, Zhang XZ (2015) Anti-Helicobacter pylori activities of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. in vitro and in vivo. World J Gastroenterol 21:4178–4183
Paul UV, Lossini JS, Edwards PJ, Hilbeck A (2009) Effectiveness of products from four locally grown plants for the management of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (both Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in stored beans under laboratory and farm conditions in Northern Tanzania. J Stored Prod Res 45:97–107
Barbosa FS, Leite GLD, Alves SM, Nascimento AF, D’Avila VA, da Costa CA (2011) Insecticide effects of Ruta graveolens, Copaifera langsdorffii and Chenopodium ambrosioides against pests and natural enemies in commercial tomato plantation. Acta Sci Agron 33:37–43
Harraz FM, Hammoda HM, El Ghazouly MG, Farag MA, El-Aswad AF, Bassam SM (2015) Chemical composition, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities of the essential oils of Conyza linifolia and Chenopodium ambrosioides. Nat Prod Res 29:879–882
Vite-Vallejo O, Barajas-Fernández MG, Saavedra-Aguilar M, Cardoso-Taketa A (2018) Insecticidal effects of ethanolic extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides, Piper nigrum, Thymus vulgaris, and Origanum vulgare against Bemisia tabaci. Southwest Entomol 43:383–393
Hmamouchi M, Lahlou M, Agoumi A (2000) Molluscicidal activity of some Moroccan medicinal plants. Fitoterapia 71:308–314
Assaidi A, Dib I, Tits M, Angenot L, Bellahcen S, Bouanani N, Legssyer A, Aziz M, Mekhfi H, Bnouham M, Frederich M, Ziyyat A (2019) Chenopodium ambrosioides induces an endothelium-dependent relaxation of isolated rat aorta. J Integr Med 17:115–124
Soares SF, Borges LMF, de Sousa BR, Ferreira LL, Louly CCB, Tresvenzol LMF, de Paula JR, Ferri PH (2010) Repellent activity of plant-derived compounds against Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs. Vet Parasitol 167:67–73
Pandey AK, Palni UT, Tripathi NN (2014) Repellent activity of some essential oils against two stored product beetles Callosobruchus chinensis L. and C. maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) with reference to Chenopodium ambrosioides L. oil for the safety of pigeon pea seeds. J Food Sci Technol 51:4066–4071
Nibret E, Wink M (2011) Trypanocidal and cytotoxic effects of 30 Ethiopian medicinal plants. Zeitschrift fur Naturforsch Sect C J Biosci 66:541–546
Kumar S, Pandey AK (2013) Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: an overview. Sci World J 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/162750
Koziol A, Stryjewska A, Librowski T, Salat K, Gawel M, Moniczewski A, Lochynski S (2014) An overview of the pharmacological properties and potential applications of natural monoterpenes. Mini-Rev Med Chem 14:1156–1168
Cechinel-Zanchett CC, Bolda Mariano LN, Boeing T, Da Costa JDC, Da Silva LM, Bastos JK, Cechinel-Filho V, De Souza P (2020) Diuretic and renal protective effect of kaempferol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (Afzelin) in normotensive and hypertensive rats. J Nat Prod 83:1980–1989
Qian L, Li N, Tang Y, Zhang L, Tang H, Wang Z (2011) Synthesis and bio-activity evaluation of scutellarein as a potent agent for the therapy of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Int J Mol Sci 12:8208–8216
Pan Z, Wang S-K, Cheng X-L, Tian X-W, Wang J (2016) Caryophyllene oxide exhibits anti-cancer effects in MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells via the inhibition of cell migration, generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of apoptosis. Bangladesh J Pharmacol 11:817–823
Fidyt K, Fiedorowicz A, Strzadala L, Szumny A (2016) β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties. Cancer Med 5:3007–3017
Kordali S, Cakir A, Ozer H, Cakmakci R, Kesdek M, Mete E (2008) Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene. Bioresour Technol 99:8788–8795
Dambolena JS, Zunino MP, Herrera JM, Pizzolitto RP, Areco VA, Zygadlo JA (2016, 2016) Terpenes: natural products for controlling insects of importance to human health - A structure-activity relationship study. Psyche (London). https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/4595823
Chizzola R (2013) Regular monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes (Essential oils). In: Ramawat KG, Mérillon JM (eds) Natural products: phytochemistry, botany and metabolism of alkaloids, phenolics and terpenes. Springer-V. Natural Products, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 2973–3007
Nakazawa GR (1996) Traditional medicine in the treatment of enteroparasitosis. Rev Gastroenterol Peru 16:197–202
De Guimaraes DL, Llanos NR, Acevedo RJ (2001) Ascariasis: comparison of the therapeutic efficacy between paico and albendazole in children from Huaraz. Rev Gastroenterol Peru 21:212–219
Lohdip AM, Oyewale AO, Aguiyi JC (2015) Elemental, proximate and amino acid contents analyses of Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. J Chem Soc Niger 40:155–159
The authors are grateful to the Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST) and Pharm-Bio Technology and Traditional Medicine Centre (PHARMBIOTRAC) for providing a Ph.D. scholarship to FMK.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Consent for publication
The authors state that there is no conflict of interest for this review.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Kasali, F.M., Tusiimire, J., Kadima, J.N. et al. Ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents, and evidence-based pharmacological properties of Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: extensive overview. Futur J Pharm Sci 7, 153 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s43094-021-00306-3
- Chenopodium ambrosioides
- Bioactive compound
- Therapeutic indications
- Pharmacological bioactivity